巨變時代中,最重要的策略經典!

 一本書,告訴你企業如何正確選擇與執行策略, 

 面對挑戰,挺進未來!

   根據波士頓顧問公司(BCGBoston Consulting Group最新研究指出,未來五年內,三分之一的上市企業可能會消失;不僅如此,領先和落後企業之間的差距,已達到有史以來最高水準。這個研究結果顯示,當今企業找到有效的策略管理方式,比以往任何時候都來得重要。身處多變的商業環境中,正確的策略顯得重要,卻又困難重重。往後數年內,商業界將經歷前所未有的變革,企業領導者需要新的策略思考才能因應變化。

  本書提出BCG策略智庫BHI,BCG Henderson Institute)長五年的調查研究成果,名為「策略調色板」(Strategy Palette),按照三個維度分類,包括:可預測性(predictability,企業能否預測商業環境未來的發展變化)、可塑性(malleability,企業是否能夠獨立或者以合作的方式重塑商業環境),以及環境嚴苛性(harshness,企業能否在商業環境中生存)。這三個維度形成五種商業環境,每一類環境都需要企業制定且落實相應的策略,分別是:

  1. 經典型(classical):因應「能夠預測,但無法改變」的環境,制定「做大」的策略。
  2. 適應型(adaptive):因應「無法預測,也無法改變」的環境,制定「求快」的策略。
  3. 願景型(visionary):因應「能夠預測,也能夠改變」的環境,制定「搶先」的策略。
  4. 塑造型(shaping):因應「不能預測,但能夠改變」的環境,制定「協調」的策略。
  5. 重塑型(renewal):因應「企業資源嚴重受限」的環境,制定「求存」的策略。

  企業需要同時或先後運用多種策略,才能因應商業環境的變化,不僅現階段保持本業獲利的拓展(exploitation),同時進行新事業的探索(exploration)以確保能夠在未來生存,這種兼容並蓄的能力稱為「雙元性創新」(ambidexterity)。原意是指「雙手並用」,引申為「雙管齊下」,亦即組合並應用策略調色板五種策略的變通能力,有助於人們面對矛盾並且同時解決矛盾

   策略,是通往目標的手段,本書指引所有企業,依據地區、產業、功能與企業生命週期的不同,因應複雜多變的商業環境,量身打造合適的策略方法。為企業領導者提供完整的策略選擇與實用的執行細節,是面對巨變時代必讀的策略經典。

《策略選擇:掌握解決問題的過程,面對複雜多變的挑戰》(Your Strategy Needs a Strategy: How to Choose and Execute the Right Approach

◎作者簡介

馬丁‧瑞夫斯Martin Reeves

波士頓顧問公司(BCG)資深合夥人兼董事總經理,常駐紐約辦公室。他在BCG任職超過二十五年,是BCG策略智庫的負責人。主要負責研究、開發並應用新的策略理念,在該領域發表了大量研究成果

納特漢拿斯Knut Haanaes

波士頓顧問公司(BCG)資深合夥人兼董事總經理,常駐日內瓦辦公室。他在BCG任職近十年,目前擔任BCG策略專項的全球領導人。他發表了二十多篇關於策略的文章,長期在《哈佛商業評論》《MIT Sloan管理評論》和其他權威期刊上發表文章。

詹美賈亞‧辛哈Janmejaya Sinha

波士頓顧問公司(BCG)資深合夥人兼董事總經理,常駐孟買辦公室。他在BCG任職十七年,目前擔任BCG亞太區主席。他同時也是BCG全球執行委員會成員,定期為印度知名媒體撰寫文章,並經常在不同行業的論壇上發表演講。

監譯者簡介

廖天舒(Carol Liao

波士頓顧問公司(BCG)大中華區董事總經理、全球資深合夥人。哈佛大學商學院工商管理碩士和北京大學商法學士。

魏傑鴻(Jeff Walters

波士頓顧問公司(BCG)全球合夥人兼董事總經理。史丹福大學電機工程碩士暨博士候選人、達特茅斯學院物理學學士。

徐瑞廷(JT Hsu

波士頓顧問公司(BCG)全球合夥人兼董事總經理,BCG臺北辦公室負責人,BCG大中華區策略專案領導人。臺灣大學電子工程學學士、史丹福大學電子工程學碩士、聖塔克拉拉大學MBA

◎譯者簡介

王喆

目前任教於南京高校。澳洲麥考瑞大學(Macquarie University)翻譯與口譯碩士。

澳洲國家翻譯局(NAATINational Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters)職業翻譯,中國翻譯協會會員,南京市政府口譯員。

韓陽

目前為全職翻譯。畢業於香港理工大學翻譯與傳譯專業。上海外事翻譯工作者協會會員、劍橋同傳同學會會員,曾任國際會議口譯。

◎影片與遊戲

策略調色板影片:https://goo.gl/12TBEm

策略調色板遊戲:Google Play 或 Apple's App Store

各界推薦

這本書點出企業領導者與主管們無法為外人道的困境,那就是產業環境變化太快,以往制定策略的方式早已落伍。希望這本書,能夠提供所有在巨變時代中的企業經營者和主管們,面對混沌、解決矛盾進而奮力求生的線索。

——徐瑞廷波士頓顧問公司〔BCGBoston Consulting Group〕全球合夥人兼董事總經理,BCG臺北辦公室負責人)

 我相信這本書對所有的企業都會有不同程度的幫助,在此推薦給讀者共享之。 

——金聯舫清華大學科技管理學院副院長兼EMBAMBA執行長) 

策略調色板具體描繪通往成功的要道,為讀者在紛繁複雜的全球商業世界中指明瞭方向。本書通俗易懂、包羅萬象,是企業領導者制定與實施新策略的必讀之書。 

——晏瑞德(Ian Read),輝瑞(Pfizer總裁兼首席執行長

這不是一本過度簡化策略的書,也不是一本標榜能夠解決一切問題的方法或工具。這本書正確勾勒商業環境的多樣性,告訴我們建立嚴謹架構的重要,讓企業能夠在不同的商業環境中找到方向,並且從中獲益。

 ——馬可‧艾洛迪(Marco AiroldiBenetton集團首席執行長

導讀|巨變時代的策略經典

徐瑞廷/波士頓顧問公司(BCG,Boston Consulting Group)合夥人兼董事總經理、BCG台北分公司負責人

過去,經營者在制定策略目標時,習慣線性思考,複製自己的成功經驗,守住擅長領域,不斷精進優化,希望藉此獲得更大的成功。

例如台灣高科技產業在製造產品時,大多依附在國際大廠下,依循他們設定的遊戲規則或規格,透過大量生產來壓低成本、提高良率,而這套模式也幾乎等於台灣經濟發展的基石。

然而,當環境變動快速,遊戲規則改變之際,如果企業依然只懂得追求量和降低成本,可能無法開創新局,甚至遭到市場淘汰。

有鑑於此,波士頓顧問公司(BCG)資深合夥人馬丁‧瑞夫斯(Martin Reeves)與二位同事納特‧漢拿斯(Knut Haanaes詹美賈亞‧辛哈(Janmejaya Sinha,三人合著的《策略選擇》(Your Strategy Needs a Strategy: How to Choose and Execute the Right Approach),可以說是 BCG 近十年發表過最具突破性的商業概念,陸續在歐美、中國、日本引起迴響。

因應產業環境制定策略,了解策略調色板的五種原型

  我和幾家台灣企業的高層聊過之後,發現這本書對於在這塊土地上努力打拚的產業界也能帶來啟發。這本書點出企業領導者與主管們無法為外人道的困境,那就是產業環境變化太快,以往制定策略的方式早已落伍。

  瑞夫斯等人在本書中提出思考的新角度,那就是隨著局勢變化,企業領導者和主管在制定策略時,應該有一套「選擇制定策略方式的策略」,針對產業環境或事業處境,量身挑選、打造最合適的管理工具。

  這個方法稱為「策略調色板」(strategy palette),以產業環境的「可預測性」(predictability,企業能否預測商業環境未來的發展變化)、「可塑性」(malleability,企業是否能夠獨立或者以合作的方式重塑商業環境),以及「環境嚴苛性」(harshness,企業能否在商業環境中生存),以三軸對應五種產業環境與策略原型。

1.經典型(classical)策略:因應「能夠預測,但無法改變」的環境,制定「做大」的策略

  產業未來明確可見,無法改變。鋼鐵、石油、電信等產業的環境變動性較低,未來發展容易預測,單憑一家企業的力量無法扭轉產業發展。身處於這種環境的公司,最好跟著整體經濟發展,穩定複製成功經驗,盡可能擴大規模、提高市占。

2.適應型(adaptive)策略:因應「無法預測,也無法改變」的環境,制定「求快」的策略

  產業發展方向模糊,難以帶來變革。典型的例子就是互聯網產業,因為市場變化太快,沒人知道下個月或下一年會走向何方,難以帶來產業變革。最適當的做法是放棄追求效率和規模最大化,藉由大量試錯(trial and error),找出最能被市場接受的策略。

3.願景型(visionary)策略:因應「能夠預測,也能夠改變」的環境,制定「搶先」的策略

  產業未來明確可見,有機會獨霸一方。如同許多企業認定機器人未來商機巨大,現在就開始大量投資,增聘人員、擴增設備、投入研發。只要經營者心中有明確的藍圖,知道 3~5 年後能夠回收,就全力投資、勇往直前吧。

4.塑造型(shaping)策略:因應「不能預測,但能夠改變」的環境,制定「協調」的策略

  產業發展模糊,有機會建立新規則。不過,這個策略對台灣企業來說比較困難。當沒人知道市場會往哪裡走,但是人人都有機會引領產業發展方向的時候,企業應該盡快建立以自己為中心的生態系統(ecosystem),就像 Apple 創造的 App Store 定義了業界規格、下載方式和收益方式,等於制訂出產業的遊戲規則。

5.重塑型(renewal)策略:因應「企業資源嚴重受限」的環境,制定「求存」的策略

  在嚴酷的環境中,當外部環境變差,導致目前的經營方式無法維持時,保存資源或騰出資源,尋求轉型與變革,藉此重新塑造企業的活力與競爭力。

兼顧拓展本業與探索新事業,培養同時解決矛盾的能力

  在商業環境中,企業需要同時或先後運用多種策略,才能因應商業環境的變化,不僅現階段保持本業獲利的拓展(exploitation),同時進行新事業的探索(exploration)以確保能夠在未來生存。然而,在大企業中,本業與新事業之間經常產生矛盾,眼前的本業必須維持獲利穩定才能活在當下,又要探索創新才能迎向未來,究竟如何同時解決看似矛盾的問題?

  2016年,瑞夫斯來台與企業高階主管分享本書時,特別強調「雙元性創新」(ambidexterity)。這個字的原意是指能左右手都能熟練地使用,引申為雙管齊下或兼容並蓄。本書中,雙元性創新是組合並應用策略調色板五種策略原型的能力,企業可以依據所在地區、產業、功能與企業生命週期的不同,因應複雜多變的商業環境,量身打造合適的策略方法。瑞夫斯指出,現代企業想要生存,必須像網球高手一樣,左右手都能擊出強而有力的球。因此,避免將策略調色板視為僵化的框架,應該更彈性地搭配活用。

  舉例來說,目前有些企業已經針對不同的事業體和部門,混合使用兩種策略原型,像是科技大廠華為的案例經驗值得借鏡。「該公司在奮力成為全球知名的通信設備製造商之後,2011 年正式從 B2B 跨入 B2C 領域,推出自有品牌的手機。」這一句話就講完的策略,背後卻是涉及了組織內部自我顛覆的改革,畢竟公司長年聚焦於大量生產、撙節成本、客戶服務,而這些優勢和專長,無法直接套用在販售手機給消費者的業務上。

  從2011 年起,華為投入大量資源進行市調、調整組織結構及布建通路,在人員配置、銷售管理、服務思維上都做了大大小小的變革,才逐步在製造商的基礎之下,增加員工對市場的敏感度,成功形塑出自有品牌,在手機市場站穩全球第三的位置。值得注意的是,華為在嘗試開發新事業的同時,並沒有停止耕耘原本的通信設備 B2B 業務,只是以左右開弓、兼容並蓄的方式做生意。這才是瑞夫斯所談的,「企業應該活用不同策略原型,參照所處的產業環境做出因應,才能生存下去」。

如果不設法自我顛覆,只有等著別人顛覆你

  前述的華為是雙元性創新的成功案例,從另一個角度思考,究竟是什麼原因,導致企業無法成功兼顧本業與新事業?

  記得有一次,我前往越南拜訪客戶,他們是產業內前幾名的大集團,本業績效卓著。在網路與科技的大趨勢下,該公司高階主管也都體認到發展新事業的重要性。可是,每次一談起「創新專案」,許多產業優等生就退縮了。有些是缺乏危機意識,認為沒必要變革;有些顧忌本業還有不錯的獲利,因此不敢大膽創新;有些則缺乏自我顛覆的新思維。

  這群人往往被思考慣性或成功模式綁架,難以開創新未來。這通常不是單一企業遇到的問題,幾乎每位經營者都眼睜睜看著新科技來勢洶洶,或是原本不屬於這個產業的外來者侵門踏戶,破壞產業既有的遊戲規則,雖然著急地成立新事業的研究團隊,但最後成功找出新方向的企業卻微乎其微。

  瑞夫斯以企業的「動態性」(dynamism,指產業環境的變動程度)和「多樣性」(diversity,指公司經營範疇的多元性)為兩軸,區分出四種可行做法,協助企業在既有事業之外,發展新的獲利模式:

1.分離(separation

  當產業環境變動程度低,而公司要拓寬經營的範疇、變得更為多元,就可以考慮拆分旗下的事業部,獨立於公司之外。

  像是西南航空(Southwest)這類低價業者逐步瓜分市場時,傳統大型航空公司雖然也相應成立低價航空,卻多半以失敗收場。

  最成功的案例就是由澳洲航空(Qantas)成立的捷星航空(Jetstar),其成功關鍵在於澳航讓捷星徹底獨立,不僅總部設在不同城市,捷星大部分的人才也從外部延攬,並不是從澳航內部調派,使得捷星徹底脫離了傳統航空的思維,以全新方式經營低價航空事業,最終才能取得成功。

2.轉換(switching

  如果企業所處的環境變動性較高時,持續探索自有技術可以應用到哪些領域。

  以玻璃製造商康寧(Corning)為例,該公司每年除了銷售既有項目(LCD電視和行動設備的玻璃面板,通信網路的光纖和電纜,光學生物感測器等等),也持續投資研發,由新的研究小組進行創意性探索。智慧型手機的玻璃螢幕 Gorilla Glass,就是康寧探索出的新路,從探索型產品轉變為新的財源。採取此策略時,企業必須格外留意新事業和本業需要不同的管理方式、人事制度、績效考核,否則新事業很容易因為賺不到錢,在公司內沒有發聲權,搶不到好人才和資源,難有機會壯大。

3.自我組織(self-organizing

  事業範疇較廣,各領域的變化速度又快,可採取這項策略。賦權給事業單位自行決策,並為結果負責,讓每個創新計畫各自成立新事業單位,以即時因應所屬領域的變化,也能視需求調整管理的制度和風格。此時,母集團應該梳理公司架構,制定明確的遊戲規則,包含研究團隊達成哪些條件就能成立新事業、虧損到哪個程度就必須退場、各事業體中哪些資源可以共享。海爾集團就是採行這套策略,發展出近 2000 個事業單位,各自有營運計畫、策略目標和損益表,靈活因應市場變化,推出新產品,成功跨足家電、藥品、通訊、軟體、物流、金融等領域。

4.外部生態系統(external ecosystem

  當企業面對的環境太過複雜、難以預測,可以試著仿效蘋果(Apple)的做法。為了讓手機應用程式(App)符合各地消費者的需求,蘋果應用程式商店(Apple’s App Store)成為程式上架平台,制訂一套 App 運作規格,以及上架、下載和收費的流程,廣邀全世界程式開發者共襄盛舉。Apple 無法預測哪些 App 會被用戶刪除或保留,但是只要外部創新者持續增加,自然會有爆紅或長銷款出現。換句話說,Apple 不必太費心開發 App,只要平台管理好,全世界的開發者都會來幫忙。

  許多產業都感受到翻天覆地的變化,如果你尚未感受到這股顛覆的力道,不妨自問這個問題:「如果另一個與我所屬產業不相干的企業龍頭,宣布進軍我所屬的產業,我該怎麼辦?」像是六月間,亞馬遜(Amazon.com)宣布收購全美最大天然有機食品連鎖零售商Whole Foods Market。電商收購超市,虛實整合,這不是遠在天邊的新聞,就在我們眼前發生。

  往我們都以為翻天覆地的變化需要很長時間,但是,現在你我都身處其中,沒有人能夠逃避。希望這本書,能夠提供所有在巨變時代中的企業經營者和主管們,面對混沌、解決矛盾進而奮力求生的線索。(本文改寫自《經理人月刊》徐瑞廷專欄「管理顧問的工具箱」)

|推薦序|經濟‧新思維‧新策略

清華大學科技管理學院副院長兼EMBA‧MBA執行長、聯發科技董事兼顧問,曾任台積電資深副總經理、前IBM 微電子部全球業務暨服務副總裁

  過去十年,全球經濟結構經歷巨大及快速的轉變,影響的層面前所未見。當今世界上市值最高成長最快的公司不再是GEGeneral Electric Company,奇異)、GMGeneral Motors,通用汽車)  IBM,而是 GAFAGoogleAppleFacebookAmazon)及 BAT(百度〔Baidu〕、阿里巴巴〔Alibaba〕、騰訊〔Tencent〕);全球最大的出租汽車公司是一家沒有擁有一輛出租汽車的Uber;全球最大旅遊住宿公司是一家沒有一間房間的 Airbnb;全球最大的零售商不再是沃爾瑪(Walmart)而是以電子商務為主的 Amazon 阿里巴巴;全球最大雲端計算服務的供應商不是 IBM 而是Amazon

  新經濟時代我們看到是:産業的界限(boundary)逐漸在消失中;經濟結構由實體經濟走向數位經濟;企業的資產由實體資產轉變成平台及大數據。在這新經濟結構巨大衝擊下,企業應該如何制定因應的新策略是所有企業憂心重重的課題。但是,大多數公司策略制定還是延續過去數十多年的傳統模式,這種模式是建立在三個主要基礎上:麥可波特(Michael E. Porter)的「競爭策略」(Competitive Strategy)及「五力分析」(Five Forces Model),普哈拉(C. K. Prahalad1941—2010)與蓋瑞哈默爾(Gary Hamel)的「企業核心能力」(Core Competence of the Corporation),以及克雷頓.克里斯汀生(Clayton M. Christensen)的「創新策略及破壞式創新」(Disruptive Innovation)。

  隨著新經濟的發展,傳統策略規畫的模式及方法已經出現嚴重不足和缺陷,企業迫不及待需要新的策略思維及方法。近年有兩本書對新經濟時代新策略的思維有了精闢的分析及突破的見解:一本是哥倫比亞大學商學院(Columbia Business School教授莉塔・岡瑟・麥奎斯(Rita Gunther McGrath  《瞬時競爭策略:快經濟時代的新常態》(The End of Competitive Advantage: How to Keep Your Strategy Moving as Fast as Your Business,繁體中文版由天下雜誌出版),另外一本就是波士頓顧問(BCGBoston consulting Group)資深合夥人兼董事總經理的馬丁瑞夫斯(Martin Reeves 及兩位同事寫的《策略選擇》(Your Strategy Needs a Strategy: How to Choose and Execute the Right Approach),這兩本書為企業提供很好的新經濟結構下規畫因應策略的藍圖及方法。

  《策略選擇》這本書點出了現行企業經營困境:傳統制定策略的做法,跟不上環境變化的速度!為了因應複雜多變的商業環境,作者提出新的思維角度:傳統策略模式不是沒用,只是隨著世界變化,企業在制定策略時,應該先有一套「制定策略的策略」,根據事業的處境,量身打造最合適的策略模式及方法。

  BCG 是企業策略領域中公認的領頭羊,創辦人布魯斯亨德森(Bruce Henderson1915—1992)一九六八年提出「經驗曲線」(Experience Curve、一九七年提出「成長矩陣」(Growth–Share Matrix Product Portfolio Matrix亦稱為BCG矩陣〔BCG Matrix),是現代策略模式的開端,至今還是廣泛地使用。

  本書作者之一的瑞夫斯是 BCG 策略智庫(The BCG Bruce Henderson Institute的負責人,是全球知名的策略大師。他在2016年來台灣時,本人與他在國內兩家科技公司訪問中詳談過,對他書中提出的理論及方法有所認識。之後也利用他的書中的理論及方法為國內數家企業做策略規畫的Workshops,有很好的結果。我相信這本書對所有的企業都會有不同程度的幫助,在此推薦給讀者共享之。

 |目錄|

【導讀】巨變時代的策略經典

文/徐瑞廷(波士頓顧問公司〔BCG,Boston Consulting Group〕全球合夥人兼董事總經理,BCG臺北辦公室負責人) 

【推薦序】新經濟‧新思維‧新策略

文/金聯舫清華大學科技管理學院副院長兼EMBA‧MBA執行長

第一章 緒論  你的策略有什麼策略

如何正確選擇並執行企業策略

五大策略環境

  ☆策略調色板

  ☆五大策略原型

    1.經典型 2.適應型 3.願景型 4.塑造型 5.重塑型

如何運用策略調色板

陷阱:容易出現問題的地方

  ☆對環境的感知

  ☆選擇合適的策略

  ☆正確運用不同類型的策略

如何使用本書  

 BOX

 本書的素材基礎

 你可能已經知道的事

 策略調色板三維度:環境的不可預測性、可塑性、嚴苛性

 策略調色板的數學理論基礎

 

第二章 經典型策略:做大

經典型策略:核心理念

什麼時候採取經典型策略?

經典型策略的應用:制定策略

☆分析

   1.市場吸引力:企業的定位 2.競爭基礎:如何定位 3.競爭定位:如何成功

☆規畫

   1.制定策略方向 2.在行動規畫中串連方向和目標

經典型策略的應用:實施策略

  ☆訊息傳達

  ☆創新

  ☆組織

  ☆文化

  ☆領導力 

技巧和陷阱

 

【案例】

 瑪氏(Mars):以經典型策略獲勝

 規模為何如此重要:以優比速(UPS)和聯邦快遞(FedEx)為例

 昆泰(Quintiles)如何制定策略

 華為(Huawei)的市場定位

 馬恒達(Mahindra):靠定位取勝

 馬恒達(Mahindra):規畫與挑戰

 邁蘭(Mylan):嚴謹的規畫

 昆泰(Quintiles)的組織形式

 輝瑞(Pfizer)的企業文化長

 沃爾瑪(Walmart)的領航者:山姆‧沃爾頓(Sam Walton)

  

 BOX

 你可能已經知道的事

 什麼時候採取經典型策略

 你處在經典型商業環境中?

 在穩定的環境中模擬策略

 你的行動是否符合經典型策略?

 

第三章 適應型策略:求快

適應型策略:核心理念

什麼時候採取適應型策略

適應型策略的應用:制定策略

  ☆識別變化的訊號

  ☆管理試驗組合

適應型策略的應用:實施策略

  ☆訊息傳達

  ☆創新

  ☆組織

  ☆文化

  ☆領導力

技巧和陷阱 

 

 【案例】

 塔塔顧問服務(TCS,Tata Consultancy Services):適應變化以追求成長

 為何速度和學習至關重要:颯拉(Zara)

 Telenor的策略制定

 安全的創新空間:財捷集團(Intuit)的組織

 3M 的文化與領導力:威廉‧麥克奈特(William L. McKnight)

    

  BOX

 你可能已經知道的事

 什麼時候採取適應型策略

 你是否處在適應型商業環境中?

 在無法預測也無法改變的動盪環境中模擬策略

 你的行動是否符合適應型策略?

第四章 願景型策略:搶先

願景型策略:核心理念

什麼時候採取願景型策略

願景型策略的應用:制定策略

  ☆發現機會

  ☆建立願景

  ☆草擬規畫                                                                          

  ☆廣泛交流你的願景

 願景型策略的應用:實施策略

  ☆訊息傳達

  ☆創新

  ☆組織

  ☆文化

  ☆領導力

技巧與陷阱

 

  【案例】

  昆泰(Quintiles):建構願景

  時機為何重要:23andMe

  在電商願景上打賭的優比速(UPS)

  速度是關鍵:Mobiquity 的策略制定

 

 

 BOX

 你可能已經知道的事

 你是否處在願景型商業環境中?

 在可預測也可改變的環境中模擬策略

 你的行動是否符合願景型策略?

 

 第五章 塑造型策略:協調

塑造型策略:核心理念

什麼時候採取塑造型策略

塑造型策略的應用:制定策略

  ☆吸引他人參與其中

    1.創造一個塑造型願景 2.確認利益關係者並理解他們 3.在恰當的時機發起合作

  ☆協調

    1.建構平臺 2.營運平臺

  ☆改進生態系統

塑造型策略的應用:實施策略

  ☆訊息傳達

  ☆創新

  ☆組織

  ☆文化

  ☆領導力

技巧和陷阱

 

 【案例】

 諾和諾德(Novo Nordisk):透過塑造型策略獲得成功

 為何生態系統至關重要:以紅帽(Red Hat)為例

 阿里巴巴的策略制定

 紅帽的組織、文化和領導力

 

BOX

你可能已經知道的事

你是否處在塑造型商業環境中?

在不可預測但可改變的環境中模擬策略

你的行動是否符合塑造型策略?

 

第六章 重塑型策略:求存

重塑型策略:核心理念

什麼時候採取重塑型策略

重塑型策略的應用:制定策略

對觸發環境變化的因素做出迅速反應

  ☆第一階段:規畫節約

  ☆第二階段:軸轉成長

重塑型策略的應用:實施策略

  ☆訊息傳達

  ☆創新

  ☆組織

  ☆文化

  ☆領導力

技巧和陷阱

 

 【案例】

 美國運通(Amex,American Express):重塑優勢

 工作重心為何重要:博士倫(Bausch & Lomb)

 僅有好的初衷是不夠的:柯達(Kodak)

 AIG的策略部署

 博士倫(Bausch & Lomb)的資訊管理與訊息傳達

 AIG的組織和文化

 博士倫(Bausch & Lomb)的領導者:布倫特‧桑德斯(Brent Saunders)

   

 

BOX

你可能已經知道的事

你是否處在重塑型商業環境中?

在惡劣環境中的策略模擬

你的行動是否符合重塑型策略?

成功企業也需要改變

 

 第七章 雙元性創新:變通

雙元性創新:核心理念

實現雙元性創新的四種策略:哪種會助你揚帆起航?

  ☆分離

  ☆轉換

  ☆自我組織 

  ☆生態系統

策略應用的二個層面

超越雙元性?策略調色板的濃淡

 

 【案例】

 百事集團(PepsiCo):雙元性創新的藝術

 本業與新事業的收入來源:韜睿惠悅(Towers Watson)的分離策略

 康寧(Corning):成功的重心轉換

 機動空間:海爾(Haier)的自我組織

 複雜網絡的協奏曲:蘋果(Apple)的生態系統

  

     BOX

 你可能已經知道的事

 克服雙元性創新挑戰:自我調整規則和自我進化組織

 

第八章 領導者的功課:成為繪圖師

繪製策略組合:核心理念

複雜多變世界中領導者的重要角色

繪製組合:領導者的八種角色

  1.診斷者 2.區隔者 3.顛覆者 4.指導者 5.推銷者 6.提問者 7.接收者 8.加速者

技巧與陷阱

 

【案例】

 輝瑞(Pfizer):迎接複雜性

 

BOX

   不同策略所面臨的問題

 

後記 自主掌控策略調色板

深化對策略的理解

將策略調色板應用於工作與生活中

拓展經驗

為其他參與者設定情境

附錄A  自我評估

你的策略是什麼?

當前應用的策略

你認為的商業環境

你想要採用的策略

結果:你是否採用了正確的策略?

附錄B  延伸閱讀

附錄C  MAB模擬機制

致謝

作者簡介

監譯者簡介

圖表索引

【圖 1–1】商業環境差異日益擴大

【圖 1–2】美國成功企業與失敗企業間的差距不斷拉大

【圖1–3】策略框架成長圖

【圖1–4】策略調色板:五種商業環境和策略方案

【圖1–5】經典型策略

【圖 1–6】適應型策略

【圖 1–7】願景型策略

【圖 1–8】塑造型策略

【圖 1–9】重塑型策略

【圖 1–10】策略調色板應用的三個層次

【圖 1–11】策略隨著不同的階段而異

【圖 1–12】不同環境下的最佳策略(模擬)

【表 1–1】策略調色板中的五種策略原型

【圖 2–1】經典型策略

【圖 2–2】經典競爭優勢的各種形式

【圖 2–3】在穩定的環境下經典型策略表現良好(模擬)

【表 2–1】決定經典型策略成敗的技巧與陷阱

【圖 3–1】適應型策略

【圖 3–2】Zara在時裝行業實施適應型策略帶來了高回報

【圖 3–3】回報的不可預測性不斷成長

【圖 3–4】經典型競爭優勢來源逐漸消退

【圖 3–5】不確定性來源分類工具

【圖 3–6】適應型策略在動盪的環境中表現良好(模擬)

【表 3–1】決定適應型策略成敗的技巧與陷阱

【圖 4–1】願景型策略

【圖 4–2】商業模式創新架構

【圖 4–3】願景型策略在易於塑造的環境中表現最佳(模擬)

【表 4–1】決定願景型策略成敗的技巧與陷阱

【圖 5–1】塑造型策略

【圖 5–2】新興市場比發展成熟的市場更為可塑但更難預測

【圖 5–3】Facebook的外部應用和網路生態系統

【圖 5–4】塑造型策略在不可預測、可塑性強的環境中有效(模擬)

【表 5–1】決定塑造型策略成敗的技巧與陷阱

【圖 6–1】重塑型策略

【圖 6–2】企業壽命縮短

【圖 6–3】如今企業競爭地位變化速度是 1992 年的二倍

【圖 6–4】極少公司在轉型中取得成功

【圖 6–5】轉型曲線

【圖 6–6】重塑型策略的取勝之道在於保留資源(模擬)

【圖 6–7】搶先式轉型

【表 6–1】決定重塑型策略成敗的技巧與陷阱

【圖 7–1】少數幾家公司成功做到了雙元性創新

【圖 7–2】實現雙元性創新的四種策略,作為環境多樣性及動態性的運用

【圖 7–3】雙元性創新的策略非常適用於變化的環境(模擬)

【圖 8–1】五種策略組合與在巨變中領導者必須扮演的八種角色

【表 8–1】決定適應型策略成敗的技巧與陷阱

【圖 1】選擇正確的策略

【圖 2】五種核心策略的模擬(示意圖)

  策略選擇_經濟新潮社

 

 《策略選擇:掌握解決問題的過程,面對複雜多變的挑戰》(Your Strategy Needs a Strategy: How to Choose and Execute the Right Approach

波士頓顧問公司(BCG)全球合夥人兼董事總經理,BCG臺北辦公室負責人徐瑞廷導讀

上銀科技股份有限公司總經理蔡惠卿、清華大學科技管理學院副院長金聯舫一致推薦

|譯名對照|

【本書專有名詞】

策略調色板(strategy palette

可預測性(predictability,企業能否預測商業環境未來的發展變化)

可塑性(malleability,企業是否能夠獨立或者以合作的方式重塑商業環境)

環境嚴苛性(harshness,企業能否在商業環境中生存)

 

經典型(classical):做大(be big

適應型(adaptive):求快(be fast

願景型(visionary):搶先(be first

塑造型(shaping):協調(be orchestrator

重塑型(renewal):求存(be viable

分析(analyze

規畫(plan

執行(execute

 

改變(vary

選擇(select

推廣(scale up

 

設想(envisage

建構(build

堅持(persist

 

吸引(engage

協調(orchestrate

發展(evolve

 

因應(react

預期(anticipate

節約(economize

成長(grow

 

雙元性創新(ambidexterity

 

分離/拆分(separation

切換(switching

自我組織(self-organization

外部生態系統(external ecosystems

 

診斷者(diagnostician

區隔者(segmenter

顛覆者(disrupter

指導者(team coach

推銷者(salesperson

提問者(inquisitor

接收者(antenna

加速者(accelerator

 

【第一章】

專有名詞

紅皇后效應(red queen effect

審慎的企業策略(deliberate corporate strategy

經驗曲線(experience curve

魚骨圖(fishbone diagram

BCG矩陣(BCG Portfolio Matrix

情境規畫(scenario planning

差距分析(gap analysis

創新採用曲線(innovation adoption curves

策略與結構(strategy and structure

進入障礙(barriers to entry

安索夫矩陣(Ansoff martix

資源基礎理論(resource-based view

間斷/持續創新((dis)continuous innovation

多元化策略和獲利能力(diversification strategy and profitability

利基策略(niche strategy

BCG優勢矩陣(BCG advantage matrix

三個基本競爭策略(3 generic strategies

標竿分析法(benchmarking

應急策略/緊急策略(emergent strategy

邏輯漸進(logical incrementalism

產品生命週期(product lifecycle

實物期權(real options

三四規則(rule of three and four

全面品質管理(TQMTotal Quality Management

策略四階段(4 phases of strategy

價值鏈(value chain

六標準差(six sigma

核心競爭力(core competencies

能力競爭(capabilities competition

承諾(commitment

 

鑽石模型(diamond model

永續發展策略(sustainability strategy

品質收益率(return on quality

策略鐘模型(bowman’s strategy clock

競合(co-opetition

價值創新(value innovation

競爭大未來(competing for the future

動態能力(dynamic capabilities

變革管理(change management

破壞式創新(disruptive innovation

策略轉捩點(strategic inflection points

價值遷移(value migration

商業生態策略系統(ecosystem strategy

超強競爭理論/超競爭理論(hypercompetition

大量客製化(mass customization

流程再造(reengineering

轉型變革(transformational change

時基競爭(time-based competition

先驅優勢/先行者優勢first mover advantage

S型曲線(S-curve

持續型策略進程(continuous strategy process

動態策略(dynamic strategies

暫時優勢(temporary advantage

引爆點(tipping point

共同價值觀(shared value

開放式創新(open innovation

藍海策略(blue ocean strategy

簡單規則策略(strategy as simple rules

連續暫時優勢(serial temporal advantage

新型資訊經濟學(new economics of information

波特五力分析(Porter five forces analysisPorter's 5 forces

  1. 來自買方的議價能力Bargaining power of Buyers

  2. 來自供應商的議價能力Bargaining power of suppliers

  3. 來自潛在進入者的威脅Threat of new entrants

  4. 來自替代品的威脅Threat of substitute products or services

  5. 來自現有競爭者的威脅Intensity of competitive rivalry

 

策略意圖(strategic intent

金字塔底層(bottom of the pyramid

撒手鐧(hardball

無設計策略(strategy without design

策略地圖(strategy maps

利潤模式(profit patterns

以客戶為中心策略(customer-centric strategy

價值鏈解構(value chain deconstruction

特殊能力(distinctive capabilities

短暫競爭優勢(transient competitive advantage

適應型優勢(adaptive advantage

商業模式創新(business model innovation

競爭策略:選擇與賽局(competitive strategy: options and games

演算法策略(algorithmic strategy

敏捷策略(strategy of agility

簡單規則策略(simple rules-based approach to strategy

新產品活力指數(NPVINew Product Vitality Index

策略與績效分析(PIMSProfit Impact of Market Strategies

應變式規畫發現導向規畫(discovery-based planning

 

3C模型(3Cs):3C即客戶(Customer)、競爭對手(Competitors)和企業(Corporation)。

 

明茲柏格的策略 5P模型(Mintzberg’s 5Ps):5P即規畫(Plan)、計策(Ploy)、模式(Pattern)、定位(Position)及觀念(Perspective);

 

7S模型(7S):7S即策略(Strategy)、結構(Structure)、體制(Systems)、共同價值觀(Shared values)、技能(Skills)、員工(Staff及風格(Style)。

 

PEST分析模型(pest analysis):PEST即政治(Political)、經濟(Economic)、社會(Social)及技術(Technological

SWOT分析(SWOT analysis):SWOT即優勢(Strengths)、劣勢(Weaknesses)、機會(Opportunities)及威脅(Threats)。

 

去平均化(de-average

雲端運算(cloud computing

網絡(networks

外部生態環境(ecosystem growth and profitability

平臺(platforms

轉型(transformation

變革逆轉勝V型復甦(turnaround

內部能力(internal capabilities

時基競爭(time-based competition

暫時優勢(temporary advantage

適應型優勢(adaptive advantage

波士頓顧問公司MAB模擬機制(BCG multi-armed banditMABsimulationmodel

進化經濟學理論(evolutionary economics

簡單規則(simple rules

臨床研究機構(CROclinical research organization

  

企業、學校、組織、政府機關構名稱

瑪氏(Mars

美國運通(Amex,American Express

塔塔顧問服務(TCSTata Consultancy Services
昆泰(Quintiles

蘋果(Apple

諾和諾德(Novo Nordisk

 

人名

布魯斯‧亨德森(Bruce Henderson19151992年)

C. K.普哈拉(Coimbatore Krishnarao Prahalad19412010年)

鮑勃‧本默切(Robert Herman “Bob” Benmosche19442015年)

史蒂夫‧賈伯斯(Steve Jobs19552011年)

馬丁‧瑞夫斯Martin Reeves

克萊兒‧拉芙Claire Love

菲利普‧提曼斯Philipp Tillmanns

潘卡‧葛馬瓦(Pankaj Ghemawat

勞倫斯‧弗里曼(Lawrence Freedman

凱薩琳‧艾森哈特(Kathleen M. Eisenhardt

莉塔.岡瑟.麥奎斯(Rita Gunther McGrath

蓋瑞‧哈默爾(Gary Hamel

陳哲(Natarajan "Chandra" Chandrasekaran

A.G.雷富禮(Alan George Lafley

保羅‧麥克斯(Paul S. Michaels

拉爾斯‧索倫森(Lars Rebien Sørensen

肯尼斯‧錢納特(Kenneth “Ken” Chenault

丹尼斯‧吉林斯(Dennis Gillings

 

【第二章】

專有名詞

差異化(differentiation

環境模型(environmental matrix

企業策略(corporate strategy

競爭策略(competitive strategy

永續競爭優勢(sustainable competitive advantage

策略規畫(strategic planning

終端使用者需求(end-user demand

 《財星》五百大企業(Fortune 500

 

企業、學校、組織、政府機關名稱

輝瑞(Pfizer

華為(Huawei

馬恒達(Mahindra

邁蘭(Mylan

雀巢(Nestlé

優比速(UPS

聯邦快遞(FedEx

沃爾瑪(Walmart

 

人名

達爾文( Charles Darwin18091882年)

弗蘭克‧瑪氏(Frank Mars18821934年)

山姆‧沃爾頓(Sam Walton19181992年)

安索夫(H. Igor Ansoff19182002年)

伯格‧沃納菲爾特(Birger Wernerfelt

傑恩‧巴尼(Jay Barney

理查‧羅歇根(Richard Lochridge

亨利‧明茲伯格(Henry Mintzberg

理查‧納爾遜(Richard R. Nelson

 

【第三章】

專有名詞

重要性(significance

銷售時點管理系統(POSpoint-of-sale

資料探勘(data mining

待開發所知(underexploited knowns

假性所知(false known

未知的未知(unknown unknown

20%時間專案(20 percent time program

固網業務(fixed-line business

混凝土現象(concrete phenomenon

試誤(trial and error

外部導向(external orientation

由下而上的規畫(bottom-up initiative

敏捷靈活的組織形式(agile and flexible organization

首創精神(initiative

假設(hypothesis

假定(assumption

VUCA環境:波動(volatility)、不確定性(uncertainty)、複雜性(complexity)與模糊性(ambiguity

康寧大猩猩玻璃(Corning Gorilla Glass

Google時間(Google Time

快照(Snapshot

快時尚(fast fashion

哈倫褲(harem pants

應變式規畫發現導向規畫(discovery-based planning

 

企業、學校、組織、政府機關名稱

颯拉(Zara

蒂則諾紡織工業控股公司(Inditex

必和必拓集團(BHP Billiton

7–Eleven

Google

通用汽車(GM

福特汽車(FMCFord Motor Company

克萊斯勒汽車(Chrysler

豐田汽車(Toyota Motor

Telenor

Google風投(Google Ventures

Google眼鏡(Google Glass

網飛(Netflix

3M(明尼蘇達礦務及製造業公司)

財捷集團(Intuit

美國汽車保險公司前進(Progressive

凱撒娛樂(Caesars Entertainment

康寧(Corning

 

人名

尼爾斯‧波耳(Niels Bohr18851962

賴利‧佩吉(Larry Page

雅克‧納塞爾(Jacques “Jac” Nasser

喬恩‧費雷德里克‧巴克薩斯(Jon Fredrik Baksaas

唐納.倫斯斐(Donald Rumsfeld

蓋瑞‧羅夫曼(Gary Loveman

葛林‧蘭威克(Glenn Renwick

布拉德‧史密斯(Brad D. Smith

里德‧哈斯廷斯(Reed Hastings

威廉‧麥克奈特(William L. McKnight

雅克‧納塞爾(Jac Nasser

理查‧納爾遜(Richard Nelson

西德尼‧溫特(Sidney Winter

湯姆‧豪特(Thomas “Tom” Hout

喬治‧斯托克(George Stalk

查理斯‧法恩(Charles Fine

  

【第四章】

專有名詞

向特立獨行者學習(learning from mavericks

願景式機會(visionary opportunity

先驅用戶(pioneering use

市場白地(white space

行動科技(mobile technology

臨床研究組織(CROclinical research organization

人類基因圖譜(human genome

願景型視角(visionary perspective

臨界規模(critical mass,另譯為群聚效應)

大數據(big data

城市化(urbanization

奈米技術(nanotechnology

肥胖(obesity

節食(dieting

貧富差距擴大(wealth disparities

沉思周(Think Week

《財星》一千大企業(Fortune 1000

 

企業、學校、組織、政府機關名稱

美國食品藥物管理局FDAFood and Drug Administration
北卡羅來納大學(University of North Carolina

昆泰(Quintiles,現為QuintilesIMS

全錄(Xerox,現為FujiXerox

胡佛(Hoover

奇異(GE

萬豪集團(Marriott

富達國際(Fidelity International

貝布森學院(Babson College

無線創新委員會(Wireless Innovation Council

微軟(Microsoft

臉書(Facebook

亞馬遜(Amazon.com

雷明頓(Remington

路易達孚(Louis Dreyfus

法國電信(France Telecom,目前名為Orange

 

人名

亨利‧福特(Henry Ford18631947年)

比爾‧蓋茲(Bill Gates

丹尼斯‧吉林斯(Dennis Gillings

蓋瑞‧哈默爾(Gary Hamel

安妮‧沃西基(Anne Wojcicki

克雷格‧凡特(Craig Venter

瓦倫堡家族The Wallenberg family / The Wallenbergs / Wallenbergs 

金偉燦(W. Chan Kim

芮妮.莫伯尼(Renée Mauborgne

克雷頓.克里斯汀生(Clayton M. Christensen

申雅‧林德哈特(Zhenya Lindgardt

馬丁‧瑞夫斯(Martin Reeves

喬治‧斯托克(George Stalk

麥克‧戴姆勒(Michael S. Deimler

傑夫‧貝佐斯(Jeffrey Preston “Jeff” Bezos

安特耶‧丹尼爾森(Antje Danielson

羅賓‧蔡斯(Robin Chase

比爾‧塞博爾William A. “Bill” Seibel

史考特‧斯奈德(Scott Snyder

 

 【第五章】

專有名詞

複雜適應系統理論(complex adaptive systems theory

利益關係者管理理論(stakeholder management theory

解構(deconstructed

合作發展(codevelopment

競合co-opetition

商業生態系統(business ecosystems

潛在競爭者(potential competitors

系統優勢(system advantage

塑造型策略(shaping strategies

開放式創新(open innovation

新資訊經濟(new economics of information

生態系統(ecosystem

中小企業(SMEsmall and medium enterprises

新產品活力指數(new-product vitality index

生態系統成長率(ecosystem growth

綜合獲利(combined profitability

獲利能力(profitability

集中(concentration

利益關係者(stakeholders

規模優勢(scale advantage

水力壓裂水力裂解(hydraulic fracturing

開源軟體(open source software

 

照片流(Photo Stream

時間軸(Timeline

安卓作業系統(Android

蘋果作業系統(iOS

Symbian

蘋果應用商店(Apple’s App Store

憤怒鳥(Angry Birds

糖果傳奇(Candy Crush Saga

 

企業、學校、組織、政府機關構名稱

諾和諾德(Novo Nordisk)。

紅帽(Red Hat

諾基亞(Nokia

思愛普(SAP

甲骨文(Oracle

阿里巴巴(Alibaba.com

淘寶網(Taobao.com

利豐集團(Li & Fung

 

人名

 奧古斯特‧克羅(August Krogh1874—1949年)

拉爾斯‧索羅森(Lars Rebien Sørensen

馬可‧顏西提(Marco Iansiti

西蒙‧萊文(Simon Levin

詹姆斯‧摩爾(James F. Moore

亞當.布蘭登伯格(Adam M. Brandenburger

貝利.奈勒波夫(Barry J. Nalebuff

亨利.伽斯柏Henry Chesbrough

菲利浦‧伊凡斯Philip Evans

湯瑪斯.伍斯特(Thomas S. Wurster

凡卡‧雷馬斯瓦米(Venkat Ramaswamy

吉姆‧懷特赫斯特(James “Jim” Whitehurst

史蒂芬‧埃洛普(Stephen Elop

 

【第六章】       

專有名詞

個人當責(personal accountability

不匹配(mismatch

流動性(liquidity

作業成本法(activity-based costing

企業流程再造(reengineering the corporation

時基競爭(time-based competition

流程再造(reengineering

組織扁平化(delayering

變革管理(change management

軸轉(pivot

比例陷阱(proportionality trap

堅守陷阱(persistency trap

遺產陷阱(legacy trap

競食效應(cannibalization,另譯為自相殘殺、兄弟鬩牆)

事業部的規模效益(business unit’s scale benefits

標竿管理分析(benchmarking analysis

精簡層級分析(delayering analysis

動態整合氣候模型(DICEDynamic Integrated Climate-Economy

研發(R&D

發研(D&R

雙元性創新企業(ambidextrous players

建設性異議(constructive dissent

業務群管理型企業(portfolio shifters

產業震盪型企業(industry shakers

當責文化ownership culture 

網路效應(network effect 

鎖定效應(lock-in effect 

 

企業、學校、組織、政府機關構名稱

美國運通(AmexAmerican Express

英國石油(BP

亞培(Abbott

美國銀行(Bank of America

康菲石油(ConocoPhillips

戴姆勒(Daimler

愛立信(Ericsson

福特汽車(FMCFord Motor Company

葛蘭素史克(GSKGlaxoSmithKline

博士倫(Bausch & Lomb

威朗製藥(Valeant

柯達(Kodak

索尼(Sony

富豪汽車(Volvo

美國國際集團(AIGAmerican International Group

達美航空(Delta

英國航空(British Airways

英特爾(Intel

麥當勞(McDonald’s

高通(Qualcomm

高通創投(Qualcomm Ventures

科進系統(Cogent Systems

 

人名

安迪‧葛洛夫(Andy Grove19362016年)

麥可.韓默(Michael Hammer19482008年)

佩爾‧吉倫海默(Pehr G. Gyllenhammar

彼得‧漢考克(Peter Hancock

布倫特‧桑德斯(Brent L. Saunders

約翰‧科特(John Kotter

鮑勃‧華特(Robert D. “Bob” Walter

詹姆斯.錢辟(James Champy        

 

【第七章】

專有名詞

眾包(crowdsourcing,群眾外包)

兼顧本業持續獲利的拓展(exploitation)與開發新事業的探索(exploration

雙元性組織(ambidextrous organization

情境雙元性創新(contextual ambidexterity

雙元性創新的四種策略(four approaches to ambidexterity

福利諮詢(benefits consulting

購併(M&A

創新引擎(innovation engine

可發展的組織(evolvable organizations

多樣性(diversity

外部導向(external orientation

 

企業、學校、組織、政府機關構名稱

 百事(PepsiCo

富士康(Foxconn

博通(Broadcom

英飛淩(Infineon Technologies

安謀(ARM,2016年由軟銀[Softbank〕購併)

韜睿惠悅(Towers Watson,現為韋萊韜悅Willis Towers Watson

康寧(Corning

海爾(Haier

臭鼬工廠(Skunk Works

洛克希德‧馬丁Lockheed Martin

豐田汽車(Toyota Motor

 

人名

畢卡索(Pablo Picasso1881—1973年)

盧英德(Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi

詹姆斯.馬奇(James March

麥克‧塔辛曼(Michael Tushman

查爾斯.歐萊禮(Charles O'Reilly

朱利安.柏金紹(Julian Birkinshaw

張瑞敏(Ruimin Zhang

何立傑(John Haley

 

【第八章】

專有名詞

 策略組合(strategy collage

多種策略動態組合的繪圖師(the animators of a dynamic combination of multiple approach to strategy

綜觀全局的策略技能(metastrategic repertoire

思路(thought flow

從生存到繁榮(survive to thrive

賦權(empower

外部視角(external perspectives

破壞式觀點顛覆式觀點(disruptive views

推力(push

拉力(pull

 

企業、學校、組織、政府機關構名稱

惠氏(Wyeth

美國聯準會(FedFederal Reserve System

美國財政部(US Department of the Treasury

 

人名

晏瑞德(Ian Read

 

 

策略選擇》延伸閱讀

第一章

Freedman, Lawrence. Strategy: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Ghemawat, Pankaj. “Competition and Business Strategy in Historical Perspective.” Business History Review 76, no. 1 (2002): 37–74.

Reeves, Martin, Claire Love, and Philipp Tillmanns. “Your Strategy Needs a Strategy.” Harvard Business Review, September 2012.(按:〈你的策略有什麼策略〉文章原刊登於《哈佛商業評論》2012年9月號,遠見天下文化出版)

Wiltbank, Robert, Nicolas Dew, Stuart Read, and Saras D. Sarasvathy. “What to Do Next? The Case for Non-Predictive Strategy.” Strategic Management Journal 27, no. 10(2006): 981–998.

第二章

Ansoff, Igor H. Corporate Strategy. An Analytic Approach to Business Policy for Growth and Expansion. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965.

Barney, Jay. “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage.” Journal of Management 17, no. 1 (1991): 99–120.

Henderson, Bruce. “The Experience Curve.” BCG Perspectives, 1968.

Henderson, Bruce. “The Product Portfolio.” BCG Perspectives, 1970.

Henderson, Bruce. “The Rule of Three and Four.” BCG Perspectives, 1976.

Henderson, Bruce. “Strategic and Natural Competition.” BCG Perspectives, 1980.

Lafley, A. G., and Roger L. Martin.  Playing to Win: How Strategy Really Works. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2013.(按:《玩成大贏家》,中國生產力中心出版,2015年)

Lochridge, Richard. “Strategy in the 1980s.” BCG Perspectives, 1981.

Peters, Thomas J., and Robert H. Waterman Jr. In Search of Excellence. New York: Warner Books, 1982.(按:《追求卓越》〔全新修訂版〕,天下文化出版,2005年)

Porter, Michael. “How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1979, 137-145.(按:〈競爭作用力如何形塑策略〉,是麥可‧波特發表在《哈佛商業評論》的第一篇文章)

“What Is Strategy?” Harvard Business Review, November 1996.

Prahalad, C. K., and Gary Hamel. “The Core Competence of the Corporation.”Harvard Business Review, May–June 1990.

Stalk, George, Philip Evans, and Lawrence E. Shulman. “Competing on Capabilities: The New Rules of Corporate Strategy.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1992.

Wernerfelt, Birger. “A Resource-Based View of the Firm.” Strategic Management Journal 5 (1984): 171–180.

第三章

Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species. London: John Murray, 1859.(按:完整版《物種起源》,台灣商務出版,1999年;《物種起源〔精華版〕》,五南出版,2013年)

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M., and Donald N. Sull. “Strategy as Simple Rules.” Harvard Business Review, January 2001.

Fine, Charles. Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage. New York: Basic Books, 1999.(按:中譯本《脈動速度下的決策者》,大塊文化出版,2000年)

McGrath, Rita G. The End of Competitive Advantage: How to Keep Your Strategy Moving as Fast as Your Business. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2013.(按:中譯本《瞬時競爭策略:快經濟時代的新常態》,天下雜誌出版,2015年)

Mintzberg, Henry. “Patterns in Strategy Formation.” Management Science 24, no. 9 (1978): 934–948.

Nelson, Richard, and Sidney Winter. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1985.

Reeves, Martin, and Mike Deimler. Adaptive Advantage: Winning Strategies for Uncertain Times. Boston: Boston Consulting Group, 2012.

Reeves, Martin, and Mike Deimler. “Adaptability: The New Competitive Advantage.” Harvard Business Review, August 2011.

Stalk, George. “Time: The Next Source of Competitive Advantage.” Harvard Business Review, July–August 1988.

第四章

Bower, Joseph L., and Clayton M. Christensen. “Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave.” Harvard Business Review, January–February 1995.

Hamel, Gary and C. K. Prahalad. Competing for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 1996.(按:《競爭大未來》,智庫出版,1996年)

Johnson, Mark, Clayton Christensen, and Henning Kagermann. “Reinventing Your Business Model.” Harvard Business Review, 2008.

Kim, W. Chan, and Renée Mauborgne. “Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant.” Harvard Business Review, October 2004.(按:中譯本《藍海策略》[增訂版],天下文化出版,2015年)

Lindgardt, Zhenya, Martin Reeves, George Stalk, and Mike Deimler. “Business Model Innovation: When the Going Gets Tough.” BCG Perspectives, December 2009.

Moore, Geoffrey A. Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-Tech Products to Mainstream Customers. New York: Harper Business Essentials, 1991.(按:中譯本《跨越鴻溝》,臉譜出版,2000年)

Reeves, Martin, George Stalk, and Jussi Lehtinen. “Lessons from Mavericks: Staying Big by Acting Small.” BCG Perspectives, June 2013.

第五章

Brandenburger, Adam M., and Barry J. Nalebuff. Co-opetition. New York: Currency Doubleday, 1996.(按:中譯本《競合策略》,雲夢千里文化出版,2015年)

Chesbrough, Henry. “Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating Profit from Technology.” Academy of Management Perspectives 20, no. 2 (2006): 86–88.

Evans, Philip, and Tom Wurster. Blown to Bits: How the New Economics of Information Transforms Strategy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.(按:中譯本《競合策略》,雲夢千里文化出版,2015年)

Freeman, R. Edward. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman, 1984.

Henderson, Bruce. “The Origin of Strategy.” Harvard Business Review, November 1989.

Iansiti, Marco, and Roy Levien. The Keystone Advantage: What the New Dynamics of Business Ecosystems Mean for Strategy, Innovation, and Sustainability. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004.

Levin, Simon. Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Moore, James F. The Death of Competition: Leadership and Strategy in the Age of Business Ecosystems. New York: Harper Business Press, 1996.(按:中譯本《競爭加倍速:創造致勝》,智庫出版,2001年)

Prahalad, C. K., and Venkat Ramaswamy. The Future of Competition: Co-creating UniqueValue with Customers. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004.(按:中譯本《消費者王朝》,天下雜誌出版,2004年)

Reeves, Martin, and Alex Bernhardt. “Systems Advantage.” BCG Perspectives, 2011.

Reeves, Martin, Thijs Venema, and Claire Love. “Shaping to Win.” BCG Perspectives, 2013.

第六章

Burrough, Brian, and John Helyar. Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of RJR Nabisco. New York: HarperBusiness, 1990.(按:中譯本《門口的野蠻人》(二十周年紀念版),左岸文化出版,2013年)

Duck, Jeanie D. The Change Monster: The Human Forces That Fuel or Foil Corporate Transformation and Change. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2001.

Hammer, Michael, and James A. Champy. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.(按:中譯本《改造企業》,牛頓出版,1994年)

Hout, Tom M., and George Stalk. Competing Against Time: How Time-Based Competition Is Reshaping Global Markets. New York: Free Press, 1990.

Kaplan, Robert S., and William J. Bruns. Accounting and Management: A Field Study Perspective. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 1987.

Kotter, John P. Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.(按:中譯本《領導人的變革法則》,天下文化出版,2002年)

Reeves, Martin, Kaelin Goulet, Gideon Walter, and Michael Shanahan. “Lean, but Not Yet Mean: Why Transformation Needs a Second Chapter.” BCG Perspectives, October 2013.

Reeves, Martin, Knut Haanæs, and Kaelin Goulet. “Turning Around a Successful Company.” BCG Perspectives, December 2013.

第七章

Birkinshaw, Julian, and Christina Gibson. “Building Ambidexterity into an    Organization.” MIT Sloan Management Review, summer 2004.

March, James G. “Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning.” Organization Science 2, no. 1 (1991): 71–87.

Reeves, Martin, Knut Haanaes, James Hollingsworth, and Filippo L. Scognamiglio Pasini. “Ambidexterity: The Art of Thriving in Complex Environments.” BCG Perspectives, February 2013.

Reeves, Martin, Ron Nicol, Thijs Venema, and Georg Wittenburg. “The Evolvable Enterprise: Lessons from the New Technology Giants.” BCG Perspectives, February 2014.

Tushman, Michael L., and Charles A. O’Reilly III. “Ambidextrous Organizations: Managing Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change.” California Management Review 38, no. 4 (1996): 8–30.

第八章

The Boston Consulting Group. “Jazz vs. Symphony—A TED Animation,” BCG Perspectives, October 24, 2014.

Clarkeson, John. “Jazz vs. Symphony.” BCG Perspectives, 1990.

Torres, Roselinde, Martin Reeves, and Claire Love. “Adaptive Leadership.” BCG Perspectives, December 13, 2010.

von Oetinger, Bolko. “Leadership in a Time of Uncertainty.” BCG Perspectives, 2002.

 

策略選擇_經濟新潮社

第一章

1.     Rita G.Mc Grath, The End of Competitive Advantage: How to Keep Your Strategy Moving as Fast as Your Business (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2013).(按:中譯本《瞬時競爭策略:快經濟時代的新常態》)

2.     Martin Reeves, Claire Love, and Philipp Tillmanns, “Your Strategy Needs a Strategy”, Harvard Business Review, September 2012.(按:〈你的策略有什麼策略〉是一篇文章,也是本書雛型)。

3.     The discussion of Mars throughout this book comes from Paul S. Michaels (MarsCEO), interview with authors, April 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

4.     Tata Consultancy Services, “Corporate Facts”, About TCS, accessed May 7, 2014, www.tcs.com/about/corp_facts/Pages/default. aspx; Times Internet Limited,“Circuit of Glory”, “Times of Tata”, Economic Times, May 14,2014, http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/timesoftata.cms.

.       The discussion of  Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) throughout this book comes from Natarajan Chandrasekaran (TCSCEO), interview with authors, June 2014, and is supplemented by others ources where indicated.

5.     “Quintiles Named Preferred Providerin Phase I Market Report,” Wall Street Journal, August 9, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/article/PR-CO-20130809-908208.html. The discussion of Quintiles throughout this book comes from Dennis Gillings (Gillingsfounder) and Tom Pike (Gillings CEO), interviews with authors, February–March 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

6.     Liu Jie, “Paying Price for Success in Commerce,” China Daily, Biz Updates, February 3, 2014, www.chinadaily.com.cn/beijing/2014-02/03/content_17272245.htm.

7.     Sara Lepro, merican Express to Cut 7,000 Jobs, uffington Post Busines, November 25, 2011, www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/10/30/american-express-to-cut-7_n_139476.html.

第二章

1.     David A. Kaplan, “Mars Incorporated: A Pretty Sweet Place to Work,” Fortune, January 17, 2013, http://fortune.com/2013/01/17/mars-incorporated-a-pretty-sweet-place-to-work/.

2.     For brand values, see Mars, “How We Work,” Mars website, accessed May 8, 2014, www.masterfoodsconsumercare.co.uk/global/careers/how-we-work.aspx. (現為http://www.mars.com/cis/en/careers/how-we-work.aspx)For U.S. ranking, see “Mars,” Forbes, May 12, 2014, www.forbes.com/companies/mars/. 

        The discussion of Mars throughout this book comes from Paul S. Michaels (Mars CEO), interview with authors, April 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

3.     Sebastian Joseph, “Cadbury and Mars Push to Boost Chocolate Sales in Slow Summer Months,” Marketing Week: News, July 13, 2013, www.marketingweek.co.uk/news/cadbury-and-mars-push-to-boost-chocolate-sales-in-slow-summer-months/4007375.article.

4.     Bruce D. Henderson, “The Product Portfolio,” BCG Perspectives, 1970, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/classics/strategy_the_product_portfolio/.

5.     BCG Strategy Institute, “Average Operating Margin 2007–2012.” Analysis based on Compustat and CapitalIQ data.

6.     David J. Lynch, “Thousands of Layoffs by DHL, ABX Air Hit Wilmington, Ohio,” USA Today, December 15, 2008, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/economy/2008-12-15-wilmington-dhl-abx-air-layoffs_N.htm.

7.     Igor H. Ansoff, Corporate Strategy. An Analytic Approach to Business Policy for Growth and Expansion (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965).

8.     Bruce D. Henderson, “The Experience Curve,” BCG Perspectives, 1968, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/classics/strategy_the_experience_curve/.

9.     Henderson, “The Product Portfolio.”

10.   Richard Lochridge, “Strategy in the 1980s,” BCG Perspectives, 1981, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/classics/strategy_strategy_in_the_1980s/.

11.   Michael Porter, “How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1979, 137–145.

12.   Birger Wernerfelt, “A Resource-Based View of the Firm,” Strategic Management Journal 5 (1984): 171–180; Jay Barney, “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage,” Journal of Management 17, no. 1 (1991): 99–120; C. K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel, “The Core Competence of the Corporation,” Harvard Business Review, May–June 1990.

13.   George Stalk, Philip Evans, and Lawrence E. Shulman, “Competing on Capabilities: The New Rules of Corporate Strategy,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1992.

14.   Bob Cramer, “With Developed Markets Reaching Maturity and Emerging Markets Slowing Down, What Will Drive Future Growth?” Bidness Etc., February 5, 2014, www.bidnessetc.com/business/the-household-and-personal-products-industry-dark-clouds-on-the-horizon/.

15.   Ivan Marten and Andrew Mack, “The European Power Sector: Only the Nimble Will Survive,” BCG Perspectives, March 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/energy_environment_european_power_sector_only_nimble_will_thrive/.

16.   Frank Klose and Jonas Prudlo, “Flexibilization: The New Paradigm in Power Generation,” BCG Perspectives, June 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/energy_environment_flexibilization_new_paradigm_in_power_generation/; Cornelius Pieper et al., “Solar PV Plus Battery Storage: Poised for Takeoff,” BCG Perspectives, July 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/energy_environment_solar_pv_plus_battery_storage_poised_for_takeoff/ ; Deutsche Telekom, “QIVICON Wins Innovation Prize and Gains New Partners,” Qivicon: Media Information, September 7, 2014, www.qivicon.com/en/meta/media-relations/qivicon-wins-innovation-prize-and-gains-new-partners/.

17.   Jack Welch, Winning (New York: Harper Business, 2004).(按:中譯本《致勝:威爾許給經理人的二十個建言》,天下文化出版)

18.   William Reed Business Media SAS, “Inside Quintiles: The World’s Largest CRO,” Outsourcing Pharma, July 29, 2013, www.outsourcing-pharma.com/Clinical-Development/Inside-Quintiles-The-World-s-Largest-CRO.

.       The discussion of Quintiles throughout this book comes from Dennis Gillings (Quintiles founder) and Tom Pike (Quintiles CEO), interviews with authors, February–March 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

19.   Michael Porter, “What Is Strategy?” Harvard Business Review, November 1, 1996.

20.   Deutsche Bahn, “Competition Report 2013,” 2013, 6–23.

21.   Diageo, “Reserve: Leading Growth in Luxury Spirits,” investor conference transcript, November 2013, www.diageo.com/en-row/investor/Pages/resource.aspx?resourceid=1600.

22.   The discussion of Huawei throughout this book comes from Guo Ping (Huawei CEO), interview with authors, March 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

23.   Nathaniel Ahrens, “China’s Competitiveness: Myth, Reality, and Lessons for the United States and Japan: Case Study: Huawei,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington DC, 2013.

24.   Michael J. Silverstein et al., The $10 Trillion Prize: Captivating the Newly Affluent in China and India (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2012).

25.   Will Connors and Devon Maylie, “Nigeria Gives Huawei a Place to Prove Itself,” Wall Street Journal, September 12, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424053111904279004576524742374778386.

26.   Henderson, “The Product Portfolio”; Bruce D. Henderson, “The Rule of Three and Four,” BCG Perspectives, 1976, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/Classics/strategy_the_rule_of_three_and_four/; Martin Reeves, Mike Deimler, and George Stalk, “BCG Classics Revisited: The Rule of Three and Four,” BCG Perspectives, December 2012, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/business_unit_strategy_the_rule_of_three_and_four_bcg_classics_revisited/.

27.   John A. Byrne, “How Jack Welch Runs GE,” BusinessWeek, June 8, 1998, www.businessweek.com/1998/23/b3581001.htm.

28.   Henderson, “The Experience Curve.”

29.   Barney Jopson, “P&G Chief AG Lafley Promotes Four Executives to Head Major Units,” Financial Times, June 5, 2013, www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/d0579dc2-ce2e-11e2-8313-00144feab7de.html?siteedition=intl#axzz3DUT2FjD3.

30.   The discussion of Mahindra throughout this book comes from Anand Mahindra (Mahindra CEO), interview with authors, June 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

31.   Shell International BV, “Chairman’s Message,” Annual Report 2012: Our Business, accessed May 7, 2014, http://reports.shell.com/annual-report/2012/businessreview/ourbusinesses/chairmansmessage.php.

32.   Shell International, “Introduction from the CEO,” Sustainability Report 2012, accessed May 7, 2014, http://reports.shell.com/sustainability-report/2012/introduction.html.

33.   The discussion of Mylan throughout this book comes from Heather Bresch(Mylan CEO), interview with authors, April 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

34.   Diageo, “Diageo Opens Its New Customer Collaboration Centre,” Diageo, Our Brands website, accessed May 12, 2014, www.diageo.com/en-row/ourbrands/infocus/Pages/CustomerCollaborationCentre.aspx.

35.   Goodreads, “Peter F. Drucker,” Quotes, May 8, 2014, www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/12008.Peter_F_Drucker.

36.   MastersInDataScience.org, “Data Science in Retail,” May 17, 2014, www.mastersindatascience.org/industry/retail/; James L. McKenney and Theodore H. Clark, “Procter & Gamble: Improving Consumer Value Through Process Redesign,” Case 195126 (Boston: Harvard Business School, March 31, 1995).

37.   Quintiles, “Where We Are: Locations,” May 8, 2014, www.quintiles.com/locations/.

38.   Amir Hartman, “The Competitor: Jack Welch’s Burning Platform,” Financial Times Press, September 5, 2003, www.ftpress.com/articles/article.aspx?p=100665&seqNum=5.

39.   Kaplan, “Mars Incorporated.”

40.   The discussion of Pfizer throughout this book comes from Ian Read (Pfizer CEO), interviews with authors, February–March 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

41.   Andrew Ward, “Pfizer Break-up May Follow AstraZeneca Deal,” Financial Times, May 4, 2014, www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/ba383d00-d399-11e3-b0be-00144feabdc0.html?siteedition=intl#axzz31X8zJqbT.

42.   Jim Collins, “The 10 Greatest CEOs of All Time,” Jim Collins website, July 21, 2003, www.jimcollins.com/article_topics/articles/10-greatest.html.

第三章

1.     The discussion of Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) throughout this book comes from Natarajan “Chandra” Chandrasekaran (TCS CEO), interview with authors, June 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

2.     See the following Tata Consultancy Services documents, all accessed May 7, 2014: “Corporate Facts,” www.tcs.com/about/corp_facts/Pages/default.aspx; “Innovation Brochure,” www.tcs.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/Brochures/Innovation-Brochure-0513-1.pdf; Tata Consultancy Services Facebook page, www.facebook.com/Corporate.Learnings/posts/571975139536810?stream_ref=5.

3.     Natarajan Chandrasekaran, e-mail message to authors, May 20, 2014.

4.     Chaitanya Kalbag and Goutam Das, “The Whole Organisation Is Pumped Up and I Have to Keep That Going,” Business Today, November 10, 2013, http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/bt-500tcs-ceo-natarajan-chandrasekaran-interview/1/199788.html.

5.     Tata Consultancy Services, “Annual Report 2009–10,” accessed May 6, 2014.

6.     Shishir Prasad, “TCS’ N Chandrasekaran: Planet of the Apps,” Forbes India, October 10, 2012, http://forbesindia.com/printcontent/33871.

7.     Saritha Rai, “India’s TCS Becomes the World’s Second Most Valuable IT Services Firm,” Forbes, September 13, 2013, www.forbes.com/sites/saritharai/2013/09/13/indias-tcs-is-second-most-valuable-it-services-firm-globally/.

8.     Daniel Pantaleo and Nirmal Pal, From Strategy to Execution: Turning Accelerated Global Change into Opportunity (Berlin: Springer, 2008), 10.

9.     The discussion of Zara and Inditex throughout this book comes from Zara senior management, correspondence with authors, June 2014.

10.   Greg Petro, “The Future of Fashion Retailing: The Zara Approach, Part 2 of 3,” Forbes, October 25, 2012, www.forbes.com/sites/gregpetro/2012/10/25/the-future-of-fashion-retailing-the-zara-approach-part-2-of-3/; Unique Business Strategies, “The Story of Zara: The Speeding Bullet,” The Strategist’s Choice, May 12, 2014, www.uniquebusinessstrategies.co.uk/pdfs/case%20studies/zarathespeedingbullet.pdf.

11.   Nelson M. Fraiman, “Zara,” Columbia Business School, Case 080204, New York, May 13, 2014.

12.   Seth Stevenson, “Polka Dots Are In? Polka Dots It Is!: How Zara Gets Fresh Styles to Stores Insanely Fast—Within Weeks,” Slate: Operations, June 21, 2012, www.slate.com/articles/arts/operations/2012/06/zara_s_fast_fashion_how_the_company_gets_new_styles_to_stores_so_quickly.html.

13.   Henry Mintzberg, “Patterns in Strategy Formation,” Management Science 24, no. 9 (1978): 934–948.

14.   Richard Nelson and Sidney Winter, An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1985); George Stalk, “Time: The Next Source of Competitive Advantage,” Harvard Business Review, July–August 1988.

15.   Charles Fine, Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage (New York: Basic Books, 1999); Kathleen M. Eisenhardt and Donald N. Sull, “Strategy as Simple Rules,” Harvard Business Review, January 2001; Rita Gunther McGrath and Ian C. MacMillan, “Discovery Driven Planning: Turning Conventional Planning on Its Head,” DeepCanyon, August 1999.

16.   Martin Reeves and Mike Deimler, “Adaptability: The New Competitive Advantage,” Harvard Business Review, August 2011; Reeves and Deimler, Adaptive Advantage.

17.   BCG Strategy Institute analysis, “Increasing Unpredictability of Returns 1950–2010,” calculated as average five-year rolling standard deviation of percent firm market capitalization growth by sector, weighted by firm market capitalization for all public US companies, based on Compustat data.

18.   Paul Bjacek, “Commodities Volatility: It May Not Go Away Soon!” Accenture, February 10, 2012, www.accenture.com/us-en/blogs/cnr/archive/2012/02/10/Commodities-volatility.aspx.

19.   Informa Australia, “BHP Billiton: Flexibility Needed in Mining Industry,” Mining and Resources, September 27, 2013, http://informaaustralia.wordpress.com/2013/09/27/bhp-billiton-flexibility-needed-in-mining-industry/.

20.   Nathan Bennett, “What VUCA Really Means for You,” Harvard Business Review, January–February 2014.

21.   Martin Reeves et al., “Signal Advantage,” BCG Perspectives, February 2010.

22.   James Sterngold, “New Japanese Lesson: Running a 7-11,” New York Times, May 9, 1991, www.nytimes.com/1991/05/09/business/new-japanese-lesson-running-a-7-11.html.

23.   Donald Rumsfeld, “Donald Rumsfeld Unknown Unknowns!” YouTube, August 7, 2009, www.youtube.com/watch?v=GiPe1OiKQuk.

24.   Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001).

25.   Toyota Motor Sales USA, “Worldwide Sales of Toyota Hybrids Top 6 Million Units,” news release, January 14, 2014, http://corporatenews.pressroom.toyota.com/releases/worldwide+toyota+hybrid+sales+top+6+million.htm; Henk Bekker, “Most-Popular Japanese Passenger Vehicle Brands and Cars,” 2009 Full Year List of Top 10 Best-Selling Cars in Japan, June 20, 2011, www.best-selling-cars.com/japan/2009-full-year-list-of-top-10-best-selling-cars-in-japan/.

26.   Andy Serwer, “Larry Page on How to Change the World,” Fortune, April 29, 2008, http://archive.fortune.com/2008/04/29/magazines/fortune/larry_page_change_the_world.fortune/index.htm.

27.   Josh Halliday, “Google+ Launch: Search Giant Closes 10 Products,” Guardian (London and Manchester), September 5, 2011, www.theguardian.com/technology/2011/sep/05/google-plus-launch-closes; Bharat Mediratta, “The Google Way: Give Engineers Room,” New York Times, October 21, 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/10/21/jobs/21pre.html?_r=0.; Christopher Mims, “Google’s ‘20% Time,’ Which Brought You Gmail and AdSense, Is Now as Good as Dead,” Quartz, August 16, 2013, http://qz.com/115831/googles-20-time-which-brought-you-gmail-and-adsense-is-now-as-good-as-dead/.

28.   Miltiadis D. Lytras, Ernesto Damiani, and Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos, Web 2.0: The Business Model (Berlin: Springer, 2008); Martin Reeves, Henri Salha, and Marcus Bokkerink, “Simulation Advantage,” BCG Perspectives, August 4, 2010, https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/strategy_consumer_products_simulation_advantage/.

29.   Halliday, “Google+ Launch.”

30.   The discussion of Telenor throughout this book comes from Jon Fredrik Baksaas (Telenor CEO), interview with authors, June 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

31.   Lillian Goleniewski, Telecommunications Essentials: The Complete Global Source for Communications Fundamentals, Data Networking and the Internet, and Next-Generation Networks (Boston: Addison-Wesley Professional, 2002).

32.   Telenor Group, “Telenor Digital,” Our Business, accessed June 5, 2014, www.telenor.com/about-us/our-business/telenor-digital/.

33.   Randall Stross, “So You’re a Good Driver? Let’s Go to the Monitor,” New York Times, November 25, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/11/25/business/seeking-cheaper-insurance-drivers-accept-monitoring-devices.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1410959757-PWjgA23/PwV/7Lj2mrSMgA.

34.   Morningstar, “Q1 2012 Earnings Call Transcript,” Morningstar, June 14, 2012, www.morningstar.com/earnings/39922695-progressive-corporation-pgr-q1-2012.aspx.

35.   Leslie Brokaw, “In Experiments We Trust: From Intuit to Harrah’s Casinos,” MIT Sloan Management Review, March 3, 2011, http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/in-experiments-we-trust-from-intuit-to-harrahs-casinos/.

36.   Erik Brynjolfsson and Michael Schrage, “The New, Faster Face of Innovation: Thanks to Technology, Change Has Never Been So Easy or So Cheap,” New York Times, August 17, 2009, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970204830304574130820184260340.

37.   Halliday, “Google+ Launch.”

38.   Martin Reeves, Yves Morieux, and Mike Deimler, “People Advantage,” BCG Perspectives, March 2010, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/strategy_engagement_culture_people_advantage.

39.   Hal Gregersen, “How Intuit Innovates by Challenging Itself,” Harvard Business Review Blog Network, February 6, 2014, http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/02/how-intuit-innovates-by-challenging-itself/.

40.   Robert I. Sutton and Huggy Rao, “When Subtraction Adds More,” BusinessWeek, February 11, 2014, www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-02-11/when-subtraction-adds-more.

41.   Robert Safian, “The Secrets of Generation Flux,” Fast Company, November 2012, www.fastcompany.com/3001734/secrets-generation-flux.

42.   Seth Weintraub, “Apple Acknowledges Use of Corning Gorilla Glass on iPhone, Means Gorilla Glass 2 Likely for iPhone 5,” 9to5Mac, March 2, 2012, http://9to5mac.com/2012/03/02/apple-acknowledges-use-of-corning-gorilla-glass-on-iphone-means-gorilla-glass-2-likely-for-iphone-5/.

43.   Reed Hastings, “Netflix Culture: Freedom and Responsibility,” Slideshare, August 1, 2009, www.slideshare.net/reed2001/culture-1798664.

44.   Yahoo!, “Netflix: Historical Prices,” Yahoo! Finance, May 20, 2014, https://uk.finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=NFLX&a=00&b=01&c=2009&d=11&e=31&f=2009&g=d&z=66&y=198; Tom Huddleston Jr., “Netflix Is Gobbling Up Internet Traffic, Study Finds,” Fortune, May 14, 2014, http://fortune.com/2014/05/14/netflix-is-gobbling-up-internet-traffic-study-finds/.

45.   Hastings, “Netflix Culture,” 80.

46.   3M, “McKnight Principles,” 3M Company website, History page, accessed May 11, 2014, http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en_US/3M-Company/Information/Resources/History/?PC_Z7_RJH9U52300V200IP896S2Q3223000000_assetId=1319210372704.

47.   Alec Foege, “The Trouble with Tinkering Time,” Wall Street Journal, January 18, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887323468604578246070515298626.

48.   Eric von Hippel, Stefan Thomke, and Mary Sonnack, “Creating Breakthroughs at 3M,” Harvard Business Review, September 1999.

第四章

1.     The discussion of Quintiles throughout this book comes from Dennis Gillings(Quintiles founder) and Tom Pike (Quintiles CEO), interviews with authors, February–March 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated. See also Matthew Herper, “The Next Billionaire: A Statistician Who Changed Medicine,” Forbes, May 8, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2013/05/08/the-next-billionaire-a-statistician-who-changed-medicine/.

2.     Quintiles, “Investor Overview,” May 8, 2014, http://investors.quintiles.com/investors/investor-overview/default.aspx; Matthew Herper, “Money, Math and Medicine,” Forbes, November 3, 2010, www.forbes.com/forbes/2010/1122/private-companies-10-quintiles-dennis-gillings-money-medicine.html.

3.     TED Conferences, “Alan Kay,” TED Speaker, May 17, 2014, www.ted.com/speakers/alan_kay.

4.     Gary Hamel, “Bringing Silicon Valley Inside,” Harvard Business Review, September 1999.

5.     The discussion of 23andMe throughout this book comes from Anne Wojcicki(23andMe founder and CEO), interview with authors, February 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

6.     Genomeweb, “23andMe Raises $50M in Series D Financing,” Genomeweb, December 11, 2012, www.genomeweb.com/clinical-genomics/23andme-raises-50m-series-d-financing.

7.     Aaron Krol, “J. Craig Venter’s Latest Venture Has Ambitions Across Human Lifespan,” Bio IT World, March 4, 2014, www.bio-itworld.com/2014/3/4/j-craig-venters-latest-venture-ambitions-across-human-lifespan.html.

8.     Ibid.

9.     Anita Hamilton, “1. The Retail DNA Test,” Invention of the Year, Time, October 29, 2008, http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1852747_1854493,00.html.

10.   Elizabeth Murphy, “Inside 23andMe Founder Anne Wojcicki’s $99 DNA Revolution,” Fast Company, October 14, 2013, www.fastcompany.com/3018598/for-99-this-ceo-can-tell-you-what-might-kill-you-inside-23andme-founder-anne-wojcickis-dna-r.

11.   Jemima Kiss, “23andMe Admits FDA Order ‘Significantly Slowed Up’ New Customers,” Guardian (London and Manchester), March 9, 2014, www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/mar/09/google-23andme-anne-wojcicki-genetics-healthcare-dna.

12.   Robert Langreth and Matthew Herper, “States Crack Down on Online Gene Tests,” Forbes, April 18, 2008, www.forbes.com/2008/04/17/genes-regulation-testing-biz-cx_mh_bl_0418genes.html; Andrew Pollack, “F.D.A. Orders Genetic Testing Firm to Stop Selling DNA Analysis Service,” New York Times, November 25, 2013, www.nytimes.com/2013/11/26/business/fda-demands-a-halt-to-a-dna-test-kits-marketing.html; US Food And Drug Administration, “23andMe, Inc. 11/22/13,” Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, November 22, 2013, www.fda.gov/ICECI/EnforcementActions/WarningLetters/2013/ucm376296.htm.

13.   Alison Sander, Knut Haanaes, and Mike Deimler, “Megatrends: Tailwinds for Growth in a Low-Growth Environment,” BCG Perspectives, May 2010, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/managing_two_speed_economy_growth_megatrends/.

14.   W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, “Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant,” Harvard Business Review, October 2004; Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad, Competing for the Future (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 1996); Joseph L. Bower and Clayton M. Christensen, “Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave,” Harvard Business Review, January–February 1995; Martin Reeves, George Stalk, and Jussi Lehtinen, “Lessons from Mavericks: Staying Big by Acting Small,” BCG Perspectives, June 2013.

15.   United Parcel Service of America, “About UPS,” UPS website, accessed May 15, 2014, www.ups.com/content/us/en/about/index.html?WT.svl=SubNav.

16.   United Parcel Service of America, “1991–1999: Embracing Technology,” History, UPS website, accessed May 15, 2014, www.ups.com/content/ky/en/about/history/1999.html?WT.svl=SubNav.

17.   Martin Reeves, “UPS: Big Bet Vision,” case study of the US freight market, India Strategy Summit, Mumbai, August 22, 2014.

18.   United Parcel Service of America, “Enabling E-Commerce,” Business Solutions, UPS website, accessed May 15, 2014, www.ups.com/content/us/en/bussol/browse/ebay.html.

19.   Reeves, “UPS: Big Bet Vision.”

20.   Eric T. Wagner, “Five Reasons 8 out of 10 Businesses Fail,” Forbes, September 12, 2013, www.forbes.com/sites/ericwagner/2013/09/12/five-reasons-8-out-of-10-businesses-fail/.

21.   Murphy, “Inside 23andMe founder Anne Wojcicki’s $99 DNA Revolution.”

22.   Stephen Nale, “The 100 Greatest Steve Jobs Quotes,” Complex, October 5, 2012, www.complex.com/pop-culture/2012/10/steve-jobs-quotes/.

23.   Intuitive Surgical, “Company Profile,” Intuitive Surgical website, accessed May 11, 2014, www.intuitivesurgical.com/company/profile.html. The discussion of Intuitive Surgical throughout this book comes from an interview by the authors in April 2014 with the company’s management; and BCG, “Meet the Mavericks,” joint seminar at Strategic Management Society Conference, Geneva, March 2013, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

24.   Intuitive Surgical, “Annual Report 2013.”

25.   Jay P. Pederson, International Directory of Company Histories: General Electric Company, vol. 137 (Detroit: St. James Press, 2012).

26.   Trevor Butterworth, “The Fifth Wave of Computing,” Forbes, June 6, 2010, www.forbes.com/2010/06/29/computing-technology-internet-media-opinions-columnists-trevor-butterworth.html. The discussion of Mobiquity throughout this book comes from Scott Snyder (Mobiquity cofounder and president), interview with authors, February 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

27.   Peter Cohan, “Mobiquity’s Founder and CEO Bill Seibel Is Unstoppable,” Forbes, July 17, 2013, www.forbes.com/sites/petercohan/2013/07/17/mobiquitys-founder-and-ceo-bill-seibel-is-unstoppable/.

28.   Cohan, “Mobiquity’s Founder and CEO.”

29.   The Henry Ford, “Henry Ford’s Quotations,” March 12, 2013, http://blog.thehenryford.org/2013/03/henry-fords-quotations/.

30.   Michael Karnjanaprakorn, “Take a Bill Gates-Style ‘Think Week’ to Recharge Your Thinking,” Lifehacker, October 22, 2012, http://lifehacker.com/5670380/the-power-of-time-off.

31.   Adrian Covert, “Facebook Buys WhatsApp for $19 Billion,” CNN Money, February 19, 2014, http://money.cnn.com/2014/02/19/technology/social/facebook-whatsapp/.

32.   Kevin Baldacci, “7 Lessons You Can Learn from Jeff Bezos About Serving the Customer,” Salesforce Desk, June 6, 2013, www.desk.com/blog/jeff-bezos-lessons/.

33.   Jim Davis, “TiVo Launches ‘Smart TV’ Trial,” CNET, December 22, 1998, http://news.cnet.com/TiVo-launches-smart-TV-trial/2100-1040_3-219409.html.

34.   Dominic Gates, “Seattle’s Flexcar Merges with Rival Zipcar,” Seattle Times, October 30, 2007, http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20071030&slug=flexcar31; Bernie DeGroat, “Hitchin’ a Ride: Fewer Americans Have Their Own Vehicle,” Michigan News, January 23, 2014, http://ns.umich.edu/new/releases/21923-hitchin-a-ride-fewer-americans-have-their-own-vehicle.

35.   Jay P. Pedersen, International Directory of Company Histories: Groupe Louis Dreyfus S.A. History, vol. 60 (Detroit: St. James Press, 2004); BCG, “Meet the Mavericks,” joint seminar at Strategic Management Society Conference, Geneva, March 2013.

36.   Clare O’Connor, “Amazon’s Wholesale Slaughter: Jeff Bezos’ $8 Trillion B2B Bet,” Forbes, May 7, 2014, www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2014/05/07/amazons-wholesale-slaughter-jeff-bezos-8-trillion-b2b-bet/.

37.   Richard Harroch, “50 Inspirational Quotes for Startups and Entrepreneurs,” Forbes, February 10, 2014, www.forbes.com/sites/allbusiness/2014/02/10/50-inspirational-quotes-for-startups-and-entrepreneurs/4/.

第五章

1.     Novo Nordisk, “The Blueprint for Change Programme: Changing Diabetes in China,” Sustainability, February, 2011, www.novonordisk.com/images/Sustainability/PDFs/Blueprint%20for%20change%20-%20China.pdf. The discussion of Novo Nordisk throughout this book is from written correspondence by the authors in July 2014 with Novo Nordisk senior management and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

2.     PharmaBoardroom, “Interview with Lars Rebien Sørensen, CEO, Novo Nordisk,” PharmaBoardroom, April 30, 2013, http://pharmaboardroom.com/interviews/interview-with-lars-rebien-s-rensen-president-ceo-novo-nordisk.

3.     China Daily Information, “Diabetes in China May Reach Alert Level,” China Daily USA, September 4, 2013, http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013-09/04/content_16941867.htm; International Diabetes Federation, “IDF Diabetes Atlas,” accessed May 16, 2014, www.idf.org/sites/default/files/DA6_Regional_factsheets_0.pdf.

4.     Novo Nordisk, “Changing Diabetes,” Novo Nordisk School Challenge, accessed May 17, 2014, http://schoolchallenge.novonordisk.com/diabetes/novo-nordisk-changing-diabetes.aspx.

5.     Novo Nordisk, “Blueprint for Change Programme,” 8.

6.     PharmaBoardroom, “Interview with Lars Rebien Sørensen.”

7.     Novo Nordisk, “Blueprint for Change Programme.”

8.     Ibid.; Novo Nordisk, “Novo Nordisk Expands R&D Centre in China,” Novo Nordisk News, August 3, 2004, www.novonordisk.com/press/news/chinese_r_and_d.asp.

9.     Novo Nordisk, “Blueprint for Change Programme,” 3.

10.   PharmaBoardroom, “Interview with Lars Rebien Sørensen.”

11.   Bruce D. Henderson, “The Origin of Strategy,” Harvard Business Review, November 1989.

12.   Edward R. Freeman, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach (Boston: Pitman, 1984).

13.   James F. Moore, The Death of Competition: Leadership and Strategy in the Age of Business Ecosystems (New York: Harper Business Press, 1996); Marco Iansiti and Roy Levien, The Keystone Advantage: What the New Dynamics of Business Ecosystems Mean for Strategy, Innovation, and Sustainability (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004); Simon Levin, Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons (New York: Basic Books, 2000); Adam M. Brandenburger and Barry J. Nalebuff, Co-opetition (New York: Currency Doubleday, 1996).

14.   Philip Evans and Tom Wurster, Blown to Bits: How the New Economics of Information Transforms Strategy (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999); Martin Reeves and Alex Bernhardt, “Systems Advantage,” BCG Perspectives, June 2011, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/future_strategy_strategic_planning_systems_advantage/; Martin Reeves, Thijs Venema, and Claire Love, “Shaping to Win,” BCG Perspectives, October 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/business_unit_strategy_corporate_strategy_portfolio_management_shaping_to_win/.

15.   Henry Chesbrough, “Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating Profit from Technology,” Academy of Management Perspectives 20, no. 2 (2006): 86–88; C. K. Prahalad and Venkat Ramaswamy, The Future of Competition: Co-creating Unique Value with Customers (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004).

16.   Christopher Null, “The End of Symbian: Nokia Ships Last Handset with the Mobile OS,” PC World, June 14, 2013, www.pcworld.com/article/2042071/the-end-of-symbian-nokia-ships-last-handset-with-the-mobile-os.html.

17.   Nathan Ingraham, “Apple Announces 1 Million Apps in the App Store, More than 1 Billion Songs Played on iTunes radio,” Verge, October 22, 2013, www.theverge.com/2013/10/22/4866302/apple-announces-1-million-apps-in-the-app-store.

18.   BBC, “Nokia at Crisis Point, Warns New Boss Stephen Elop,” BBC News: Technology, February 9, 2011, www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-12403466; Chris Ziegler, “Nokia CEO Stephen Elop Rallies Troops in Brutally Honest ‘Burning Platform’ Memo? (Update: It’s Real!),” Endgaget, February 8, 2011, www.engadget.com/2011/02/08/nokia-ceo-stephen-elop-rallies-troops-in-brutally-honest-burnin/.

19.   Mark Scott, “Nokia Announces New Strategy, and a New Chief to Carry It Out,“ New York Times, April 29, 2014, www.nytimes.com/2014/04/30/technology/nokia-announces-new-strategy-and-chief-executive.html?_r=0.

20.   Justin Smith, “Facebook Platform Payment Providers Report Strong Growth in Q1,” Inside Facebook, April 14, 2009, www.insidefacebook.com/2009/04/14/facebook-platform-payment-providers-report-strong-growth-in-q1/.

21.   Julie Bort, “It’s Official: Red Hat Is the First Open Source Company to Top $1 Billion a Year,” Business Insider, March 28, 2012, www.businessinsider.com/its-official-red-hat-becomes-the-first-1-billion-open-source-company-2012-3. The discussion of Red Hat throughout this book comes from Jim Whitehurst (Red Hat CEO), interview with authors, February 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

22.   Red Hat, “Our Mission,” Red Hat website, accessed September 18, 2014, www.redhat.com/en/about/company.

23.   Yahoo!, “Red Hat Inc.,” Yahoo! Finance, September 18, 2014,   https://uk.finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=RHT&b=11&a=00&c=2008&e=16&d=11&f=2008&g=d.

24.   Facebook, “Facebook Platform Migrations,” Facebook website, accessed May 23, 2014, https://developers.facebook.com/docs/apps/migrations.

25.  Apple, “iTunes Charts,” Paid Apps, accessed September 18, 2014, www.apple.com/uk/itunes/charts/paid-apps/; Greg Kumparak, “Apple Announces Top 10 iPhone App Downloads of 2008,” Tech Crunch, December 2, 2008, http://techcrunch.com/2008/12/02/apple-announces-top-10-iphone-app-downloads-of-2008/.

26.   Ian Urbina and Keith Bradsher, “Linking Factories to the Malls, Middleman Pushes Low Costs,” New York Times, August 7, 2013, www.nytimes.com/2013/08/08/world/linking-factories-to-the-malls-middleman-pushes-low-costs.html?_r=0; Fung Group, “Supply Chain Management,” Fung Group Research, accessed September 18, 2014, www.funggroup.com/eng/knowledge/research.php?report=supply; Fung Group, “Who We Are,” Fung Group website, September 3, 2014, www.funggroup.com/eng/about/.

27.   “The World’s Greatest Bazaar: Alibaba, a Trailblazing Chinese Internet Giant, Will Soon Go Public,” Economist, May 23, 2013, www.economist.com/news/briefing/21573980-alibaba-trailblazing-chinese-internet-giant-will-soon-go-public-worlds-greatest-bazaar. The discussion of Alibaba throughout this book comes from Ming Zeng (Alibaba CSO), interview with authors, March 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

28.   Alexa Internet, “The Top 500 Sites on the Web,” Alexa website, accessed September 18, 2014, www.alexa.com/topsites.

29.   Stephen Gandel, “What Time Is the Alibaba IPO?” Fortune, September 17, 2014, http://fortune.com/2014/09/17/what-time-is-the-alibaba-ipo/.

30.   “The World’s Greatest Bazaar.”

31.   Christina Bonnington, “Apple’s Developer Conference, WWDC, Has Grown into a Disaster,” Wired, April 29, 2013, www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-04/29/wwdc-is-too-big.

32.   Google, “Google I/O 2013,” Developers home page, accessed May 5, 2014, https://developers.google.com/events/io/.

33.   Adam Bryant, “The Memo List: Where Everyone Has an Opinion,” New York Times, March 10, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/03/11/business/jim-whitehurst-of-red-hat-on-merits-of-an-open-culture.html?pagewanted=all.

第六章

1.     HSN Consultants, Inc., “Global Cards,” Nilson Report, 2008, http://www.nilsonreport.com/publication_chart_and_graphs_archive.php. The discussion of American Express throughout this book comes from Ken Chenault (American Express CEO), interview with authors, April 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated. 

2.     Michael Barbaro and Louis Uchitelle, “Americans Cut Back Sharply on Spending,” New York Times, January 14, 2008, www.nytimes.com/2008/01/14/business/14spend.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.

3.     Sara Lepro, “Amer ican Express to Cut 7,000 Jobs,” Huffington Post Business, November, 25, 2011, www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/10/30/american-express-to-cut-7_n_139476.html.

4.     Peter Eichenbaum, “American Express Marketing Cuts May ‘Cheat’ Brand(Update2),” Bloomberg, August 6, 2009, www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=a2Y3p_tL_J1A.

5.     Yahoo!, “Historical Prices: American Express Company,” Yahoo! Finance, May 21, 2014, http://finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=AXP&a=11&b=1&c=2009&d=00&e=2&f=2010&g=d.

6.     Ibid.

7.     Kenneth I. Chenault, “American Express Chairman & CEO Key Remarks,” Bank of America Merrill Lynch 2009 Banking and Financial Services Conference, New York, November 10, 2009.

8.     Ibid.

9.     Peter Eavis, “Kenneth Chenault’s Crisis Years,” New York Times, December 18, 2012, http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/12/18/kenneth-chenaults-crisis-years/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0.

10.   American Express Company, “American Express Announces 2008 Membership Rewards(R) Program Partner Lineup,” Investor Relations, May 22, 2008, http://ir.americanexpress.com/Mobile/file.aspx?IID=102700&FID=6134500.

11.   Chenault, “Key Remarks.”

12.   Robert S. Kaplan and William J. Bruns, Accounting and Management: A Field Study Perspective (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 1987); Michael Hammer and James A. Champy, Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution (New York: HarperCollins, 1993); Tom M. Hout and George Stalk, Competing Against Time: How Time-Based Competition Is Reshaping Global Markets (New York: Free Press, 1990).

13.   Ron Nicol, “Shaping Up: The Delayered Outlook,” BCG Perspectives, October 2004, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/strategy_shaping_up_the_delayered_look/.

14.   John P. Kotter, Leading Change (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996); Jeanie D. Duck, The Change Monster: The Human Forces That Fuel or Foil Corporate Transformation and Change (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2001).

15.   Clifford Krauss and John Schwartz, “BP Will Plead Guilty and Pay Over $4 Billion,” New York Times, November 15, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/11/16/business/global/16iht-bp16.html.

16.   Martin Reeves, Sandy Moose, and Thijs Venema, “BCG Classics Revisited: The Growth Share Matrix,” BCG Perspectives, June 2014, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/corporate_strategy_portfolio_management_strategic_planning_growth_share_matrix_bcg_classics_revisited/.

17.   The discussion of Bausch & Lomb and Forest Laboratories throughout this book comes from Brent Saunders (Bausch & Lomb CEO), interviews with authors, March 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

18.   Matthew Herper, “$9 Billion Bausch & Lomb Sale Mints New Turnaround Artist,” Forbes, May 27, 2013, www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2013/05/27/9-billion-bausch-lomb-sale-mints-new-turnaround-artist/; United Securities and Exchange Commission, Form S-1 Registration Statement (Washington, DC: 2013).

19.   Bausch & Lomb, “Investor Relations,” Our Company, August 5, 2013, www.bausch.com/our-company/investor-relations#.VByPDstOW70.

20.   Martin Reeves et al., “Lean, but Not Yet Mean: Why Transformation Needs a Second Chapter,” BCG Perspectives, October 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/transformation_growth_why_transformation_needs_second_chapter_lean_not_yet_mean/. Note: For our study we looked closely at transformation programs using a method of paired historical comparison, an approach that eliminates interesting but irrelevant details and zeroes in on the key factors that separate success from failure. We looked at a dozen pairs of companies, each in the same industry and facing similar challenges at similar times.

21.   Ibid.

22.   Martin Reeves, Knut Haanaes, and Kaelin Goulet, “Turning Around the Successful Company,” BCG Perspectives, December 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/transformation_large_scale_change_growth_turning_around_successful_company/.

23.   This discussion of Kodak comes from a series of interviews and e-mail correspondence by the authors between May and June 2014 with leaders of Kodak’s corporate communications department and is supplemented by various other sources such as Giovanni Gavetti, Rebecca Henderson, Simon Giorgi, “Kodak and the Digital Revolution (A),” Case 705448 (Boston: Harvard Business School, 2005); Robert J. Dolan, “Eastman Kodak Co.,” Case 599106 (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999); A. Cheerla, “Kodak—A Case of Triumph & Failure” (2010), http://www.managedecisions.com/blog/?p=444; and Steve Hamm, Louise Lee, and Spencer E. Ante, “Kodak’s Moment of Truth,” BusinessWeek, February 18, 2007, http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2007-02-18/kodaks-moment-of-truth.

24.   “Marc Faber: We Could Have a Crash Like in 1987 This Fall! Here’s Why,” Before It’s News, May 12, 2012, http://beforeitsnews.com/gold-and-precious-metals/2012/05/marc-faber-we-could-have-a-crash-like-in-1987-this-fall-heres-why-2129176.html.

25.   “Fortune 500: 2008,” Fortune, September 18, 2014, http://fortune.com/fortune500/2008/wal-mart-stores-inc-1/. The discussion of AIG throughout this book comes from Peter Hancock (AIG CEO), interview with authors, April 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

26.   Matthew Karnitschnig, “U.S. to Take Over AIG in $85 Billion Bailout; Central Banks Inject Cash as Credit Dries Up,” Wall Street Journal, September 16, 2008, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB122156561931242905; Leslie P. Norton, “The Man Who Saved AIG,” Barrons, August 11, 2012, http://online.barrons.com/news/articles/SB50001424053111904239304577575214205090528#articleTabs_article%3D1.

27.   Jody Shenn and Zachary Tracer, “Federal Reserve Says AIG, Bear Stearns Rescue Loans Paid,” Bloomberg, June 14, 2012, www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-06-14/new-york-fed-says-aig-bear-stearns-rescue-loans-fully-repaid.html.

28.   American International Group, “Annual Report,” 2013, 5.

29.   Stuart Read et al., Effectual Entrepreneurship (New York: Routledge, 2011).

30.   BCG, “DICE: How to Beat the Odds in Program Execution,” August 2014.

31.   Perry Keenan et al., “Strategic Initiative Management: The PMO Imperative,” BCG Perspectives, November 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/program_management_change_management_strategic_initiative_management_pmo_imperative/.

32.   Mike Sager, “What I’ve Learned: Andy Grove,” Esquire, May 1, 2000, www.esquire.com/features/what-ive-learned/learned-andy-grove-0500.

33.   For One AIG identity, see Bloomberg, “AIG’s Bob Benmosche Memo to Employees,” Newsarchive, September 17, 2014, www.bloomberg.com/bb/newsarchive/aWbEUgKiZLNM.html. For return of brand name, see American International Group, “AIG Returns Core Insurance Operations to AIG Brand, Reveals New Brand Promise,” Business Wire, November 11, 2012, www.businesswire.com/news/home/20121111005039/en/AIG-Returns-Core-Insurance-Operations-AIG-Brand#.VBypRMtOW71.

第七章

1.     Hugh Johnston, “Geared for Growth,” PepsiCo website, February 21, 2013, www.pepsico.com/Download/CAGNY_Webdeck.pdf. The discussion of PepsiCo throughout this book comes from Indra Nooyi (PepsiCo CEO), interview with authors, April 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

2.     Ted Cooper, “PepsiCo Shows Why Frito-Lay and Pepsi Are Better Together,” Investing Commentary, Motley Fool, January 15, 2014, www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/01/15/heres-why-pepsico-is-positioned-better-for-2014-th.aspx; PepsiCo, “Quick Facts,” PepsiCo website, August 22, 2013, www.pepsico.com/Download/PepsiCo_Quick_Facts.pdf.

3.     PepsiCo, “Annual Report 2012,” 2012, 24.

4.     James G. March, “Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning,” Organization Science 2, no. 1 (1991): 71–87; Michael L. Tushman and Charles A. O’Reilly III, “Ambidextrous Organizations: Managing Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change,” California Management Review 38, no. 4 (1996): 8–30.

5.     Julian Birkinshaw and Christina Gibson, “Building Ambidexterity into an Organization,” MIT Sloan Management Review, summer 2004.

6.     Martin Reeves et al., “The Evolvable Enterprise: Lessons from the New Technology Giants,” BCG Perspectives, February 2014, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/future_strategy_business_unit_strategy_evolvable_enterprise_lessons_new_technology_giants/; Martin Reeves and Jussi Lehtinen, “The Ingenious Enterprise: Competing Amid Rising Complexity,” BCG Perspectives, May 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/growth_business_unit_strategy_ingenious_enterprise_competing_amid_rising_complexity/.

7.     Martin Reeves, Claire Love, and Nishant Mathur, “The Most Adaptive Companies 2012: Winning in an Age of Turbulence,” BCG Perspectives, August 2012. Adaptive companies are defined as outperforming in 75 percent of turbulent and stable periods or 30 percent of all turbulent quarters. Outperformance calculation is based on market cap growth relative to industry-average growth. The analysis looked at US public companies between 1960 and 2011 and is based on Compustat data.

8.     Martin Reeves et al., “Ambidexterity: The Art of Thriving in Complex Environments,” BCG Perspectives, February 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/business_unit_strategy_growth_ambidexterity_art_of_thriving_in_complex_environments/.

9.     Lockheed Martin, “Skunk Works® Origin Story,” Aeronautics, May 7, 2014, www.lockheedmartin.com/us/aeronautics/skunkworks/origin.html.

10.   Joe Clifford, “Toyota’s Skunkworks Plug-in Hybrid Sports Car,” Toyota (blog), January 28, 2014, http://blog.toyota.co.uk/toyotas-skunkworks-plug-in-hybrid-sports-car#.VCBnsstOW70.

11.   This discussion of Towers Watson comes from John Haley (Towers Watson CEO), interview with authors, February 2014, and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

12.   Julia Cooper, “Towers Watson, Mercer Lead Largest Benefits Consulting Firms,” San Francisco Business Times, July 11, 2014, www.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/subscriber-only/2014/07/11/benefits-consulting-firms-2014.html.

13.   Towers Watson, “Annual Report 2012,” 2012, 15.

14.   Christopher Lawton, “TV Sellers Are Thinking Big,” Wall Street Journal, November 20, 2007, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB119551914597698572.

15.   Corning, “CEO: ‘Corning Is Built for Longevity,’” press release, April 29, 2014, www.corning.com/news_center/news_releases/2014/2014042901.aspx.

16.   Ben Dobbin, “Gorilla Glass, 1962 Invention, Poised to Be Big Seller for Corning,” Huffington Post, February 10, 2010, www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/08/02/gorilla-glass-1962-invent_n_667416.html.

17.   Seth Weintraub, “Apple Acknowledges Use of Corning Gorilla Glass on iPhone, Means Gorilla Glass 2 Likely for iPhone 5,” 9to5Mac, March 2, 2012, http://9to5mac.com/2012/03/02/apple-acknowledges-use-of-corning-gorilla-glass-on-iphone-means-gorilla-glass-2-likely-for-iphone-5/; Bryan Gardiner, “Glass Works: How Corning Created the Ultrathin, Ultrastrong Material of the Future,” Wired, September 24, 2012, www.wired.com/2012/09/ff-corning-gorilla-glass/all/. 

18.   Corning corporate communications department, e-mail message to authors, July 29, 2014.

19.   Corning, “Corning Launches Ultra-Slim Flexible Glass,” press release, June 4, 2012, www.corning.com/news_center/news_releases/2012/2012060401.aspx.

20.   Haier Group, “Haier Ranked the #1 Global Major Appliances Brand for 4th Consecutive Year—Euromonitor,” Reuters, December 24, 2012, www.reuters.com/article/2012/12/24/haier-ranked-first-idUSnPnCN34281+160+PRN20121224. This discussion of Haier comes from written correspondence by authors with Haier senior management in June 2014 and is supplemented by other sources where indicated.

21.   Haier Group, “Haier: The Evolution of You,” Haier website, accessed May 8, 2014, www.haier.com/us/about-haier/201305/P020130512352743920958.pdf.

22.   Lao-Tzu, “The Tao-te Ching,” May 11, 2014, http://classics.mit.edu/Lao/taote.1.1.html.(按:《道德經》,老子

23.   Ruimin Zhang, “Raising Haier,” Harvard Business Review, February 2007.(按:張瑞敏〈拉

拔海爾帝國

24.   Ibid.

25.   Haier corporate communications department, e-mail message to authors, June 13, 2014.

26.   Lance Whitney, “iPhone 6 Images Reportedly from Foxconn Reveal Larger Body,” CNET, May 12, 2014, www.cnet.com/news/iphone-6-renders-reportedly-from-foxconn-reveal-larger-body/; Allan Yogasingam, “Teardown: Inside the Apple iPhone 5,” EDN Network, September 21, 2012, www.edn.com/design/consumer/4396870/Teardown--Inside-the-Apple-iPhone-5.

第八章

1.     Pfizer, “To Our Shareholders,” CEO letter, February 28, 2014, www.pfizer.com/files/investors/financial_reports/annual_reports/2013/letter.htm; Pfizer, “Annual Report 2011,” 2011, and“Annual Report 2013,” 2013; Simon King, “The Best Selling Drugs Since 1996: Why AbbVie’s Humira Is Set to Eclipse Pfizer’s Lipitor,” Forbes, July 15, 2010, www.forbes.com/sites/simonking/2013/07/15/the-best-selling-drugs-since-1996-why-abbvies-humira-is-set-to-eclipse-pfizers-lipitor/; Yahoo!, “Historical Prices: Pfizer Inc. (PFE),” Yahoo! Finance, September 17, 2014, https://uk.finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=PFE&a=00&b=1&c=2000&d=11&e=30&f=2000&g=d&z=66&y=66.

2.     Pfizer, “Annual Report 2013,” 2, 8.

3.     Pfizer, “R&D Collaborations,” Annual Review 2013, May 13, 2014, www.pfizer.com/files/investors/financial_reports/annual_reports/2013/assets/pdfs/pfizer_13ar_i_collaborate.pdf.

4.     Pfizer, “To Our Shareholders”; Pfizer, “To Our Stakeholders,” CEO letter, February 28, 2013, www.pfizer.com/files/investors/financial_reports/annual_reports/2012/letter.html; Andrew Ward, “Pfizer Break-up May Follow AstraZeneca Deal,” Financial Times, May 4, 2014, www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/ba383d00-d399-11e3-b0be-00144feabdc0.html?siteedition=intl#axzz31X8zJqbT.

5.     Bruce Henderson, “Why Change Is So Difficult,” BCG Perspectives, 1968, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/Classics/why_change_is_so_difficult/.

6.     Dow Jones Newswires, “AIG’s Benmosche Pushes on Bid to Buy Bonds,” Wall Street Journal, March 23, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748704050204576218401104973260.

7.     US Department of the Treasury, “Treasury Sells Final Shares of AIG Common Stock, Positive Return on Overall AIG Commitment Reaches $22.7 Billion,” Press Center, November 12, 2011, www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/tg1796.aspx.

8.    Erik Holm, “Hoping to Strike Profit Gold, AIG Ramps Up in Data Mining,” Wall Street Journal, October 15, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10000872396390444799904578052591860897244.

 

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