《開放式領導》網站:http://www.charleneli.com/open-leadership/

 

《開放式領導》附註

  

前言

(第32頁) 美國紅十字會社群網站:

1. http://blog.redcross.org/

http://www.youtube.com/amredcross

http://twitter.com/redcross

http://www.flickr.com/groups/americanredcross

http://www.linkedin.com/company/157239?trk=NUS_CMPY_FOL-nhre

http://www.socialvibe.com/#/causes/38

 

(第33頁)美國紅十字會社群媒體運用指導手冊:

2.     The American Red Cross Social Media Strategy Handbook: http://sites.google.com/site/wharman/social-media-strategy-handbook

 

(第33頁)美國紅十字會社群網站:

3.     http://redcrosschat.org/chapter-blogs, http://redcrosschat.org/twitter

 

(第34頁)美國紅十字會發起以簡訊捐款海地震災活動:

4.   http://mashable.com/2010/01/13/haiti-red-cross-donations

http://www.techcrunch.com/2010/01/15/haiti-text-donations

  

第一章:掌控還管用嗎?

 

(第48頁)聯合航空摔壞大衛凱羅爾的吉他:

1.     “United Breaks Guitars, Dave Carroll Keeps Playing,” http://www.petergreenberg.com/2009/08/11/united-breaks-guitars-dave-carroll-keeps-playing/, August 2009.

 

 (第48頁)聯合航空行李損壞的責任歸屬:

2.     United explained that this policy was in place to accurately assign responsibility for the damage, and to address the many fraudulent claims it receives every year.

 

(第48頁)大衛凱羅爾自彈自唱〈聯合航空摔壞吉他〉:

3.     The first of what would be eventually a series of three videos, the “United Breaks Guitars” video is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5YGc4zOqozo.

 

(第48頁)大衛凱羅爾官網:

4.     More information about Dave Carroll is available at http://davecarrollmusic.com./

 

(第49頁)大衛凱羅爾對於聯合航空事後處理的回應:

5.     Dave Carroll’s video comment is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T_X-Qoh__mw/.

 

(第51頁)全球活躍於網路上的人口多達十七億人:

6.     According to Internet World Stats, 1.7 billion people were online as of September 30, 2009, which represented 25.6 percent penetration. More information is available at http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm.

 

(第51頁)全球人口中曾看過網路影片的比例:

7.     Universal McCann Social Media Tracker, Wave 4, July 2009, available at http://universalmccann.bitecp.com/wave4/Wave4.pdf.

 

(第52頁)電視也能上網:

8.     Verizon recently introduced the ability to access sites like Facebook and Twitter via their Verizon FIOS service. More information is available in this article at http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/facebook_and_twitter_on_tv_hands-on_with_verizon_fios_widgets.php.

 

(第52頁)播客(podcast):

9.     Services like Gcast.com, Gabcast.com, and Hipcast.com allow podcasters to simply call a number and record the podcast; the file is then available for them to use.

 

(第56頁)《領導力》(Leadership):「領導統御是一種關係,一方是渴望領導的人,另外一方則是選擇跟從的人。」

10.   James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, The Leadership Challenge (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007), p. 24.

 

(第56頁)「拿回掌控權」的迷思:

11.   The headline for a marketing conference email promotion read, “It’s time to take back control!” More information is available in the blog post, “Can you control your customers?” at http://www.altimetergroup.com/2009/10/can-you-control-your-customers.html.

 

(第58頁)2008年歐巴馬參加美國總統大選,善用志工經營新型態的關係和參與,把社群網站當成超級助選員、打贏選戰:

12.   Disclosure: I was active as a precinct manager and volunteer on the Obama campaign.

 

(第58頁)2008年,歐巴馬競選美國總統時的大選經理人大衛.普樂夫(David Plouffe)在許多地方列出遊戲方案——YouTube也是其中之一:

13.   Obama campaign manager David Plouffe shares the campaign strategy on YouTube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6bp0B61rNk.

 

(第58頁)歐巴馬支持者以「歐巴馬正妹」「驚聲尖叫二○○八」「Yes We Can」等自製影片上傳YouTube,吸引數百萬人次觀賞:

14.   “Crush on Obama” by Obama Girl is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKsoXHYICqU.

“Wassup 2008” is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qq8Uc5BFogE and will.i.am’s video “Yes We Can” is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjXyqcx-mYY.

 

(第60頁)山繆.杭亭頓教授在《變動社會的政治秩序》一書中,以「國王的困境」(king’s dilemma)一詞,描述統治者在治理「民智漸開、資訊通達」的人民時所面臨的挑戰:

15.   Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968).

 

(第61頁)彼得.杜拉克(Peter Drucker)在《企業的概念》(Concept of the Corporation)描述通用汽車(GMGeneral Motors)強勢管理的方法,但也建議公司將權力下放,因為公司並未聽取內部員工當中,資訊最多、最專業員工的意見:

16.   Peter Drucker, Concept of the Corporation (New York: John Day, 1946).

 

(第62頁)羅伯.格林里夫於一九七年所發表的〈僕人式領導〉論文中,徹底顛覆領導學,將高階主管比喻為「企業中卑微的管理人員」:

17.   Robert K. Greenleaf’s essay The Servant as Leader first appeared in 1970; a copy of the essay is available at http://greenleaf.org/. Greenleaf published Servant Leadership: A Journey Into The Nature Of Legitimate Power And Greatness (New York: Paulist Press) in 1977.

 

(第62頁)湯姆.彼得斯在《追求卓越》一書中,鼓勵企業以員工和顧客主導的團隊取代組織裡頭重腳輕的管理階層:

18.   Thomas J. Peters, In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies (New York: HarperCollins, 1982).

 

第二章:開放的十大要素

 

(第70頁)尼米茲號(USS Nimitz)艦長麥克.馬納澤爾(Michael Manazir):「這是你們的海軍,你們有權知道海軍是如何為民服務」:

1.     One blogger asked half-seriously if there were Cylons (alien species from the TV show Battlestar Galactica) on board, a question that stumped everyone from the captain to the public affairs officers. And they confirmed that there aren’t any Cylons on the ship.

 

(第71頁)尼米茲號安排部落客參訪:

2.     An excellent recap and photos of the USS Nimitz blogger embark is available at

http://blog.guykawasaki.com/2009/06/24-hours-at-sea-on-the-uss-nimitz.html.

 

(第71頁)路易斯.迪爾賈多(Luis Delgardo)駕駛F-18戰鬥機,當他接受另外一位部落客的訪問時,坦白說出他的飛行經驗:「每一次飛行,都好像自己身體裡有一小部分跨進死亡幽谷」:

3.     From an interview conducted by Jennifer Jones aboard the USS Nimitz on May 29, 2009. The interview is available at

http://jenniferjones.com/5892/admiral-john-miller-aboard-the-uss-nimitz-gives-dramatic-briefing-to-bloggers.

 

(第75頁)約翰.凱斯在《開卷式管理》一書中,將開卷式管理(OBMopen book management)定義為「透過分享財務以及營運資訊,讓每一個員工都為了讓公司更加成功而努力的管理方式。」:

4.     John Case, Open Book Management: The Coming Business Revolution (New York: Harper Paperbacks, 1996). OBM involves four basic practices: (1)training employees so they become business literate and can understand financial statements, (2) empowering them to use that information in cost cutting and quality improvement, (3) trusting them as business partners on equal footing, and (4) rewarding them fairly for the firm’s success. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/open-book-management-OBM.html.

 

(第75頁)遵循開卷式管理的公司至今依然寥寥可數,原因是很難以周詳的方式提供足夠的資訊,將知識轉變為行動方案:

5.     See, for example, John Case, Open-Book Management; Thomas J. McCoy, Creating an “Open Book” Organization: Where Employees Think and Act Like Business Partners (New York: AMACOM, 1996); and John P. Schuster, Jill Carpenter, and M. Patricia Kane, The Open-Book Management Field Book(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 1997).

 

(第76頁)英特爾創辦人葛洛夫:「惟戒慎恐懼者得以倖存。」:

6.     Andrew Grove. Only the Paranoid Survive (New York: Doubleday Business, 1996).

 

(第76頁)臉書的宗旨是「賦予人們分享的權力,並讓這個世界更為開放、相連。」:

7.     Facebook’s mission statement is available at http://www.facebook.com/facebook?ref=pf#/facebook?v=info&ref=pf.

A look at the evolution of Facebook’s mission statement is available at http://www.observer.com/2009/media/evolution-facebooks-mission-statement.

 

(第77頁)臉書的平台源自於大學生之間溝通封閉式社群網路,至今已演變為創造莫大商機的平台:

8.     The Facebook Platform and Facebook Connect enable companies to take Facebook assets (like profiles and friend relationships) and use them on their own sites. Developers can also create applications that run on Facebook itself. Companies like game application developer Zynga are being valued well into the hundreds of millions because of the audience they have been able to amass on Facebook’s platform.

(第78頁)臉書開放其產品開發的時間表,事先公開未來六個月的升級計畫,以便開發人員針對接下來的改變設計更好的安排:

9.     Details of Facebook’s short-term future plans are available at http://wiki.developers.facebook.com/index.php/Developer_Roadmap

http://developers.facebook.com/blog/post/326/.

 

(第80頁)位於美國波士頓的貝斯以色列女執事醫療中心(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)前執行長保羅.李維在部落格中,探討的主題從精簡醫院流程到探討他的薪水究竟是否過高:

10.   Paul Levy’s blog is at http://runningahospital.blogspot.com/.

These specific posts are at http://runningahospital.blogspot.com/2009/10/5s-projects-arespreading.html

http://runningahospital.blogspot.com/2009/10/icu-i-reallycare-for-you-and-your.html

and http://runningahospital.blogspot.com/2007/01/do-i-get-paid-too-much.html.

 

(第80頁)保羅.李維開始寫部落格是為了「和人們分享我在這裡的體驗、以及他們在醫療界的經驗」:

11.   From Paul Levy’s first blog post, August 2, 2006, at http://runningahospital.blogspotcom/2006/08/running-hospital.html.

 

(第80頁)賴瑞.韋伯在《棍子和石頭》一書中,保羅.李維解釋自己如何在寫部落格和當執行長之間取得平衡:

12.   Weber, Larry. Sticks & Stones: How Digital Reputations Are Created Over Time and Lost in a Click (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley), 2009, 35.

 

(第82頁)康卡斯特(Comcast)顧客服務資深主任法蘭克.艾利森(Frank Eliason)建立一個推特的帳號,還取了個很貼切的名稱「康卡斯特在乎您的感受」(ComcastCares):

13.   Frank Eliason and the ComcastCares Twitter page are available at http://twitter.com/comcastcares.

 

(第85頁)「素人上臺」(open mic)的精神——歡迎每一個人「上臺」無條件地參與:

14.   Micah Laaker contributed an essay “What It Means to Be Open” that appears on pages 443-444 in Christian Crumlish and Erin Malone, Designing Social Interfaces (O’Reilly/Yahoo! Press, 2009).

 

(第86頁)YouTube就是素人上臺、樂於分享的縮影:

15.   Randy Pausch’s Last Lecture is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ji5_MqicxSo.

“JK Wedding Entrance Dance” is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-94JhLEiN0; inserting a central line how-to is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xsgE7ueaek; Hamster On A Piano is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfqNXADl3kU&feature=fvw.

 

(第86頁)自由記者提供高品質的新聞影片:

16.   Chris Morrow’s reporting is available at http://www.ireport.com/people/ChrisMorrow.

 

(第87頁)喬伊和大衛.賀伯(Joe and Dave Herbert)花不到二千美元的費用,拍出一支爆笑的廣告短片「免費的多力多滋」(Free Doritos)受到關注:

17.   The USA Today Ad Meter results for the 2009 Super Bowl is available at http://www.usatoday.com/money/advertising/admeter/2009admeter.htm.

 

(第88頁)群眾外包網站crowdSPRING99designs

18.   Disclosure: The logo for Altimeter Group, which was founded by Charlene Li, was designed and obtained on http://www.crowdspring.com/.

 

(第88頁)善用群眾外包:

19.   The term spec work is applied to unscrupulous method of getting work completed for free under the guise of a contest. Usually the designer signs over all rights to the work. A group called “No! Spec” has advocated strongly for an end to such practices. See http://www.no-spec.com/. The author believes that sites like crowdspring.com and 99designs.com serve the interests of designers by making clear the relationship and ownership of the designs at the outset of the engagement.

 

(第89頁)開放平台背後的目的,在於建立標準、原型以及規則,規範公司組織和人們可以彼此互動的方式:

20.   An excellent overview of openness in technology appears in Chapter Seventeen of Crumlish and Malone’s Designing Social Interfaces.

 

(第90頁)開放平台要能夠運作和為人所接受,就必須具備清楚的規則界定明確的開放性:

21.   For example, Facebook’s platform has extended itself into thousands of other sites clearly lay out its own standards. In contrast, the rival OpenSocial API protocol has yet to reach a 1.0 release as of the writing of this book, primarily because it must reach agreement with partners like Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, and MySpace.More information about OpenSocial is available at opensocial.org.

 

(第95頁)蘇格蘭皇家洋芋片(Walkers)舉行「幫個忙,一起來選新口味!」(Do Us a Flavour)的活動。透過群眾外包的方式,挑選新口味洋芋片,請大眾上網為自己最喜愛的口味投票:

22.   The Do Us A Flavour Web site is at http://www.walkers.co.uk/flavours/#/howitworks/.

 

(第96頁)戈爾公司(W. L. Gore)採取共識決策法,組織極度扁平,徹底打破階級制度:

23.   The Financial Times offers a quick overview of W. L. Gore’s organizational structure and decision making at http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/32fba7da-bfc9-11dd-9222-0000779fd18c.html.

 

(第97頁)哈默爾(Gary Hamel)在《管理大未來》(The Future of Management)書中描述:「有個員工總結戈爾公司這種做法的精髓,那就是『我們用腳投票,如果你召集的會議就有人參加,那你就是領導者。』」:

24.   Gary Hamel, The Future of Management (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2007), p. 88.

 

(第99頁)「程式碼很龐雜,每天要做的決定數量極為可觀。如果一小群人試圖把持程式碼某個部分大多數的決策,那麼這個專案便會以龜速進行」:

25.   Details on how Mozilla manages distributed decision making and module ownership is available at http://www.mozilla.org/hacking/module-ownership.html.

 

第三章:目標,決定開放的程度

 

(第115頁)透過Google部落格搜尋或推特搜尋做為輿情觀測工具。當顧客在討論貴公司時,你們就能掌握與追蹤:

1.     Google Blog Search is at www.google.com/blogsearch; Twitter search is at http://twitter.com/#!/search. Both of these tools are free to use.

 

(第115頁)付費的輿情觀測網站:BuzzMetricsCymfonyRadian6UmbriaVisible Technologies

2.     There are hundreds of social media and brand monitoring tools available. A report with a comprehensive list can be found at open-leadership.com.

 

(第115頁)想辦法將輿情觀測的監控工具整合到貴公司業務管理或顧客服務的企業應用程式中。也就是說,如果有人在社群網站寫一些有關貴公司的事情,你們可以得知這些人是不是貴公司顧客:

3.     Microsoft’s Looking Glass and Salesforce’s Chatter are just a few examples that were announced as this book was going to press.

 

(第119頁)柯爾百貨(Kohl’s)臉書專頁塗鴉牆上,對其中一半的留言都有回覆:

4.     Kohl’s Facebook Wall is at http://www.facebook.com/kohls#/kohls?v=wall. These observations were made on November 14, 2009.

 

(第121頁)參與金字塔(engagement pyramid),將參與的型態進行分類為五個階層,階層愈高代表參與行為愈深,由低而高分別為:觀察(watching)、分享(sharing)、評論(commenting)、生產(producing)、策展(curating)。這個金字塔顯示顧客與員工如何參與你們的公司、品牌、產品或甚至更廣泛的議題。如同「90:9:1參與不平等理論」(participation inequality theory)一般,主張百分之九十的人會當「潛水客」,冷眼旁觀、伺機而動;百分之九的人會偶爾參與;只有百分之一的人會真正地「冒出水面」積極投入參與:

5.For more about the participation inequality theory, see http://www.useit.com/alertbox/participation_inequality.html. Jake McKee also captured this on his site at http://www.90-9-1.com.

 

(第123頁)根據ShareThis調查發現,網站整體流量當中有百分之五至十的比例是進行分享:

6.     The Share This report was a commissioned study by Forrester Research, “The Ins And Outs Of Online Sharing: How And When Consumers Share Content,” July 7, 2008.

 

(第125頁)美國、英國、南韓、巴西上網人口的參與金字塔分析:

7.     Based on activities in the preceding month, from Trendstream.net. Additional information about the survey data and for sixteen countries is available at http://www.charleneli.com/open-leadership/.

 

(第127頁)西南航空(Southwest Airlines)航程規畫師比爾.歐文(Bill Owen)部落格:

8.     Southwest Airline employee Bill Owen’s post is at http://www.blogsouthwest.com/blog/march-schedule-now-bookableso-go-somewhere.

 

(第131頁)思愛普(SAPEcoHub讓潛在客戶可以找到所需的資訊:

9.     SAP EcoHub is available at http://ecohub.sdn.sap.com.

 

(第132頁)企業開始訴諸顧客尋覓點子、充分發揮群眾外包市場的力量,例如crowdSPRINGuTest、以及創新中心(InnoCentive):

10.   crowdSPRING (http://www.crowdspring.com/) provides design services, uTest (http://www.utest.com/) provides software and usability testing services, and InnoCentive(http://www.innocentive.com/) crowdsources problem solving.

 

(第134頁)在一個相信新點子應該主要來自公司內部的組織之中,你要如何才能鼓勵創新?看看寶僑(P&GProcter & Gamble)執行長雷富禮(A. G. Lafley)怎麼做:

11.   “P&G’s New Innovation Model,” HBS Working Knowledge, March 20, 2006. Available at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/5258.html.

 

(第137頁)蘋果公司(Apple)社群網站連結:

12.   iTunes is at http://www.facebook.com/iTunes on Facebook. iTunes also has Twitter accounts at http://twitter.com/iTunesMusic, http://twitter.com/iTunesPodcasts, http://twitter.com/iTunesMovies, and http://twitter.com/iTunesTV.

 

第四章:開放,究竟有什麼好處?

 

(第144頁)美國運通(American Express)行銷長海斯(John Hayes):「我們對於可以衡量的事物往往高估其價值,對於無法衡量的事物卻又往往低估。」:

1.     American Express CMO John Hayes made this comment at the Brandworks University conference, June 2, 2009, in Madison, Wisconsin. More information is available at http://www.lsb.com/brandworks-conference/brandworks-conference-2009/.

 

(第149頁)康卡斯特(Comcast)的顧客滿意度調查在同業之中長久以來一向敬陪末座,究竟該怎麼做:

2.     According to The American Customer Satisfaction Index, Comcast scored 54 out of 100 in 2008, tied with Charter for last in the cable and satellite TV industry. Note that Comcast did improve its score significantly in 2009. For more information, see

http://www.theacsi.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=149&catid=&Itemid=214&c=Comcast+&i=Subscription+Television+Service.

 

(第149頁)安妮婆婆(Grannie Annie)的本名是安娜.梅(Anna May),每天都在部落格上寫文章。有一天,她在部落格上發了一篇名為「我不喜歡康卡斯特!」:

3.     The Grannie Annie blog post is available at

http://grannieannies.blogspot.com/2008/03/i-dont-like-comcast.html.

 

(第154頁)戴爾電腦(Dell)應用推特(twitter)的即時性,於二○○九年三月發出僅限推特的交易訊息推文:

4.     Dell Outlet’s Twitter page is at http://twitter.com/delloutlet.

 

(第155頁)消費者最後決定在網站Dell.com上買別款系統,而不是在推特網頁上:

5. Dell wrote a blog post about the linkage between its Dell Outlet Twitter account and sales, which can be found at http://en.community.dell.com/.

 

(第155頁)戴爾電腦在推特上的投資報酬率極為驚人:

6.     It’s presumed that Dell’s Twitter sales were incremental and didn’t cannibalize sales that would have taken place anyway. Regardless, the minimal amount of resources taken up by Nelson is far outweighed by the benefit to Dell.

 

(第155頁)在推特設有交易網頁的公司不計其數,甚至還有許多網站整合這些交易:

7.     One site that aggregates Twitter deals is http://cheaptweet.com/.

 

(第156頁)福特汽車Fiesta時尚特務(Fiesta Movement):

8.     The Ford Fiesta Movement campaign can be found online at http://www.ford.com/cars/fiesta/.

 

(第157頁)Altimeter Group針對全球頂尖的百大品牌進行研究,希望了解這些品牌在社群媒體和其顧客參與的深度。ENGAGEMENTdb參與報告顯示,參與的真諦不光是成立部落格、讓訪客發表評論或臉書「粉絲團」(fan page)。而是透過各種活動深入參與,例如更新部落格的內容,以及仰賴「粉絲」(fans)在臉書上發表評論:

9.     The study is available at

http://www.engagementdb.com.

 

(第158頁)研究發現社群網站上深層、廣泛的參與,和企業的財務績效之間存有關聯性,尤其是在營收和獲利方面:

10.   Eighty-six of the 100 brands evaluated are publicly traded, so year-on-year financial data on revenue, gross margin, and gross profit were compared.

 

(第158頁)深入、廣泛經營社群媒體的企業,在營收、毛利率以及績效都遠遠超過同業:

11.   The most deeply and broadly engaged companies saw year-on-year increases in revenue, gross margin, and gross profit of +18 percent, +15 percent, and +4 percent, respectively. By comparison, the least deeply and broadly engaged companies saw year-on-year decreases of –6 percent, –9 percent, and –11 percent on the same respective metrics. More information is available online at http://www.engagementdb.com.

 

(第159頁)柯林斯(Jim Collins)在《從AA+》(Good to Great)一書中寫道,企業就好比急駛中的巴士,你得找到「適合的人」上車:

12.   Jim Collins, Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap ……And Others Don’t (HarperBusiness, 2001).

 

(第159頁)史考特.蒙迪(Scott Monty)如何以社群媒體策略協助福特汽車處理車迷網站The Ranger Station事件:

13.   The Ranger Station is available at http://www.therangerstation.com/. Thanks to Ron Ploof who captured the details of this case study in a document, “The Ranger Station Fire: How Ford Motor Company Used Social Media To Extinguish a PR Fire in less than 24 Hours,” available at http://www.scribd.com/doc/9204719/The-Ranger-Station-Fire.

 

(第162頁)社群媒體行銷軟體開發商Lithium Technologies和《金融時報》(Financial Times)合作發布支援社群白皮書:

14.   “Gold in Them Hills: Computing ROI for Support Communities,” Lithium Technologies and FT Works, 2008. Available at http://pages.lithium.com/gold-in-them-hills.html.

 

(第168頁)思科(Cisco)量化Web 2.0計畫的好處(編按:或參考2011年公開資訊:How Cisco IT Evolved Enterprise Social Software and Collaborationhttp://www.cisco.com/web/about/ciscoitatwork/collaboration/docs/Cisco_IT_IWE_Deployment_Case_Study.pdf

15.   A PDF of Cisco’s cost savings calculations is available at open-leadership.com.  

 

(第168頁)TransUnion是美國最大型的信用報告公司之一,他們先在Socialtext設立一個協作平台,免得讓員工(渴望在內部建立社群網絡的員工)在臉書上分享資訊:

16.   More details are available in an interview with TransUnion CTO John Parkinson in Internet Evolution, http://www.internetevolution.com/document.asp?doc_id=173854.

 

(第173頁)顧客終身價值(LTVlifetime value)應該如何計算?:

17.   There are many ways to calculate lifetime value (LTV), and many use discount rates to calculate net present value (NPV). The model used here was based on information at http://www.dbmarketing.com/articles/Art129.htm and http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/1436.html, but simplifies the calculation by not using NPV.

 

(第174頁)淨宣傳分數(net promoter score),做為衡量顧客對他們公司忠誠度以及滿意度的主要衡量指標。「淨宣傳分數」只問一個問題來衡量顧客的滿意度:「你對朋友或是同事推薦(公司)的可能性是多少?」顧客可從零到十的分數之間選擇:

18.   More information about the Net Promoter Score is available at http://www.netpromoter.com.

 

(第174頁)管理「淨宣傳分數」忠誠計畫的Satmetrix,以數個產業的「淨宣傳分數」為標竿,像是Vonage45%)、嘉信理財集團(Charles Schwab)(36%)、蘋果公司(77%),以及Google71%)等公司,都在所屬產業名列前茅:19.   Satmetrix’s 2009 Net Promoter Score Benchmark Rankings Report is available at

http://www.satmetrix.com/satmetrix/news_events.php?page=1&pid=72.

 

第五章:開放,也需要建立結構

 

(第185頁)Robert Half Technology公司對美國一千四百位企業資訊長進行的意見調查顯示,百分之五十四封鎖員工在工作場所使用臉書、推特、LinkedInMySpace等社群媒體網站:

1.     An October 6, 2009, press release from Robert Half Technology containing details about the survey is available at http://rht.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=131&item=790.

 

(第189頁)德勤公司(Deloitte)進行一項意見調查發現,對於員工使用社群媒體只有百分之二十二的企業擁有某種形式的指導原則:

2.     The Deloitte study, “Social Networking and Reputational Risk in the Workplace,” can be found at http://www.complianceweek.com/s/documents/DeloitteSocialNetworking.pdf.

 

(第191頁)你們的社群媒體指導原則,一開始就要表示公司對於社群媒體技術感到興奮,而且希望員工透過社群技術的運用,對顧客和其他利害關係人更加地開放。以下是惠普(HP)的社群媒體指導原則:

惠普肯定社群媒體網站的獨特價值,並支持員工負責任地運用這些日益熱門的溝通和學習工具。在部落格領域和社群媒體網站積極參與,讓惠普的員工可以直接、公開、以及即時地和顧客、潛力客戶、事業合作夥伴以及一般大眾互動。這樣高度個人化的資訊和點子的交流,反映出我們定義經商方式的合作和顧客導向。

在社群網站的有效參與,有助於激發和加深外界對我們公司、產品和服務的興趣。這也讓我們能夠得知和更為敏捷地回應當務之急。惠普和其員工在當今充滿動態的科技界因此得以位居思潮領導者的地位。

3.     HP’s social media policy is an internal document; this excerpt was provided as a courtesy and appears with their permission.

 

(第192頁)Razorfish為員工提供的社群媒體使用指導原則寫得很棒,他們提供多項具體的情境,說明這項原則適用的情況和不適用哪些情況:

4.     The Razorfish Employee Social Influence Marketing Guidelines are available at http://www.razorfish.com/img/content/RazorfishSIMguideWebJuly2009.pdf.

 

(第193頁)美國梅約醫院(Mayo Clinic)說明他們指導原則的宗旨:

梅約醫院的員工對於部落格和社群網站的運用,應該謹記在心的重點,主要是這套適用於這些空間的基本原則,也適用於他們生活之中的其他領域。這些指導原則的目的,在於協助員工了解,梅約醫院的指導原則如何適用於這些溝通的新工具上,所以,你們不但可以放心地參與這個部落格,也可以應用於其他的社群媒體平台:

5.     The Participation Guidelines for Mayo Employees is available at http://sharing.mayoclinic.org/guidelines/for-mayo-clinic-employees/.

 

(第193頁)本田(Honda)於2009年秋天在臉書上推出Accord Crossover粉絲團,塗鴉牆上出現好幾則負面評論批評這款新車外觀,但有個人捍衛這款新車:

6.     Details on the Accord Crosstour Facebook incident are available in an article at http://www.autoblog.com/2009/09/03/honda-purges-some-comments-fromcrosstour-facebook-page/.

 

(第193頁)移除負面言論並且發文解釋,只會火上加油而已:

7.     Honda’s response on the Accord Crosstour Facebook page is available at http://www.facebook.com/accordcrosstour?v=wall&viewas=725095119#/accordcrosstour?v=app_6009294086.

 

(第193頁)柯達(Kodak)要求員工在社群網站表明自己的真實身分:

就算你是以個人的身分發言,人們還是可能認為你代表柯達說話。如果你撰寫部落格文章、討論照片、印刷或其他跟柯達業務相關的主題,請一開始就說明你在柯達服務;不過,如果你不是正式的公司發言人,請附加免除責任聲明:「所陳述的意見和立場純屬個人,未必反映伊斯曼柯達公司的(Eastman Kodak Company)的立場:

8.     Kodak’s Social Media Tips are available at http://www.kodak.com/US/images/en/corp/aboutKodak/onlineToday/Kodak_SocialMediaTips_Aug14.pdf.

 

(第194頁)每家公司對於負責程度的認定可能都有很大的差異,主要是看公司對於活動的開放或是限制的程度而定。以下是凱薩醫療機構(Kaiser Permanente)的例子:

負起責任:你們要對自己在社群媒體上的發文負起個人責任。部落格、維基百科,以及其他型態的線上論壇的發文,是個人的互動行為,並非公司層級的溝通。凱薩醫療機構人員和醫師對自己在網路上的言論與發文親自負責;記住,你們寫過的內容,將會公開很長久的時間。

凱薩醫療機構的核心價值之一是:「以誠信負責的態度對待所有的關係。」身為一家企業,凱薩醫療機構信賴並期望集團旗下所有員工,不論在撰寫部落格的文章、還是在參與任何社群媒體,都要負起個人的責任:

9.     The Kaiser Permanente Social Media Policy is available at http://xnet.kp.org/newscenter/media/downloads/socialmediapolicy_091609.pdf.

 

(第195頁)每家公司對於機密資訊外洩都有其憂心之處,不論是有關產品的功能、客戶的資訊、智慧財產權、還是員工的八卦。你們可能得具體列舉各種特別容易在無意中外洩的資訊:

10.   The Kaiser Permanente Social Media Policy is available at http://xnet.kp.org/newscenter/media/downloads/socialmediapolicy_091609.pdf.

 

(第195頁)凱薩醫療機構有幾位醫師會積極地使用部落格和推特:

11.   A list of Kaiser Permanente doctors who have Twitter accounts can be found at http://twitter.com/htpotter/permanente-physicians. One of the most prolific blogging doctors is Dr. Ted Eytan, whose blog is available at http://www.tedeytan.com/.

 

(第196頁)思科:如果你們的發文之中,含有任何跟思科有關的資訊,那麼,常識是最好的判斷依據:

12.   Cisco’s Internet Postings Policy is available at http://blogs.cisco.com/news/comments/ciscos_internet_postings_policy.

 

(第196頁)美國空軍:你們的影片將會被審查,如果違反指導原則、違背常識和禮節,那麼將會被拒絕。別讓美國空軍面臨帳號可能遭到取消的情況。

13.   The U.S. Air Force includes guidelines in the document “New Media and the Air Force,” available at http://www.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090406–036.pdf.

 

(第197頁)英特爾(Intel)在指導原則中提到:

如果你即將準備發文的內容中,有些文字會讓你覺得不舒服,就算只有一絲絲的不安,可別忽略這種感覺按下「送出」。花個一分鐘的時間,看一看這些指導綱領,試著想想看,究竟是什麼讓你覺得不安?然後進行修改:

14.   Intel’s Social Media Guidelines are available at http://www.intel.com/sites/sitewide/en_US/social-media.htm.

 

(第198頁)IBM的社群媒體原則:

如果這有助你們、你們同事、我們客戶、合作夥伴能夠順利工作和解決問題;如果有助於提升了解和精進技能;如果這對改良IBM的產品、流程和政策具有直接或是間接的貢獻;如果這能建立社群感;或是如果這有助促進IBM的價值,那麼這便是能夠增值。你選擇要和讀者分享的資訊,比方說,有關你家庭或是個人興趣的資料,儘管和公司並不是直接相關,說不定有助於為你們和讀者之間建立關係。不過,要不要分享這些資訊,完全是你的選擇。

15. The IBM Social Computing Guidelines are available at http://www.IBM.com/blogs/zz/en/guidelines.html.

 

(第198頁)帝博大學(DePaul University)社群媒體原則:

只要情況許可,盡可能地引述和連結你們的消息來源;畢竟,你們的社群是這樣建立的:

16.DePaul University’s policy is available at

http://brandresources.depaul.edu/vendor_guidelines/g_socialmedia.aspx.

 

(第200頁)戴爾電腦社群媒體指導原則中納入以下的條文:

戴爾電腦的員工或是公司的代表,若未能遵守這項政策,將會遭到懲處,其中,包括終止和戴爾的聘雇關係。此外,根據違反政策或是線上通路的內容本質而定,參與者也可能面臨民事/刑事處罰:

17.   Dell’s Online Communications Policy is available at http://www.dell.com/content/topics/global.aspx/policy/en/policy.

 

(第203頁)IBM是企業界率先擬定部落格指導原則的先驅企業之一。為了撰寫指導原則,IBM在內部維基百科發表條文草案,讓全體員工知道他們都可以來看、並幫忙撰寫這份指導原則。這份指導原則經過法務和人力資源部門的審閱之後,在幾乎沒有什麼更改的情形下便獲得採用。

18.   IBM’s Social Computing Guidelines are available at http://www.IBM.com/blogs/zz/en/guidelines.html. For comparison purposes, the 2005 version of the Guidelines is available as a PDF at http://www.wordbiz.com/x9ksp38/IBM_Blogging_Policy_and_Guidelines.pdf.

 

(第205頁)富國銀行(Wells Fargo)社群媒體副總裁艾德.特潘寧(Ed Terpening):「負面評論在整體提出的意見當中算是少數的情況」:

19.   From an interview I conducted with Ed Terpening, available at http://vator.tv/news/show/2009-03-04-using-blogs-in-a-public-relations-crisis. In another interview, Terpening discusses how Wells Fargo successfully blogs; see http://vator.tv/news/show/2009-02-19-how-wells-fargo-successfully-blogs. Wells Fargo’s Community Guidelines are available at http://blog.wellsfargo.com/community-guidelines.html.

 

(第205頁)英特爾(Intel)確保「立場平衡的線上對話」:

20.   Intel’s Social Media Guidelines are available at http://www.intel.com/sites/sitewide/en_US/social-media.htm.

 

(第206頁)GetSatisfaction發表的「公司顧客協定」(The Company-Customer Pact),呼籲公司與顧客雙方要共同承擔責任:

21.   GetSatisfaction’s “The Company-Customer Pact” is available at http://getsatisfaction.com/ccpact.

 

(第208頁)惠普的部落格行為準則(Blogging Code of Conduct)以一份單純、但強而有力的聲明,列出他們會怎麼做:「我們將會致力和我們的讀者建立開放、而且誠實的對話。」

22.   HP’s Blogging Code of Conduct is available at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/blogs/codeofconduct.html.

 

(第210頁)偉達(Hill & Knowlton Inc.)社群媒體原則:

23.   Hill & Knowlton’s Social Media Principles are available at http://www.hillandknowlton.com/principles.

 

(第210頁)社群媒體商務委員會(Social Media Business Council)資訊揭露最佳實踐工具(Disclosure Best Practices Toolkit):

24.   The Social Media Business Council’s Disclosure Best Practices Toolkit is available at http://www.socialmedia.org/disclosure/.

 

(第211頁)嬌生集團(J&JJohnson & Johnson)瑪格瑞特.古羅茲(Margaret Gurowitz)成立Kilmer House部落格,講述創業以來的公司歷史:

25.   The Kilmer House blog is available at http://www.kilmerhouse.com.

 

(第211頁)JNJ BTW部落格討論嬌生集團當前的事務:

26.   The JNJ BTW blog is available at http://www.jnjbtw.com.

 

(第211頁)DVD租片公司奈飛(Netflix)的企業文化:

27.   Netflix published a presentation that explains their company culture at

http://www.netflix.com/Jobs?lnkceData=22&lnkce=ftrlnk&trkid=912834. Slide 61 has more details on what Netflix considers “good” and “bad” processes.

 

第六章:如何協調組織內部的開放策略?

 

(第220頁)如果你們知道某個新的潛力客戶擁有跟其他顧客緊密的關係,那麼你們可能會觀察這號人物的購買模式來推論他可能對什麼產品有興趣:

1.     The theory of “network neighbors” holds that people who are closely connected to each other have similar interests, tastes, and behaviors. So Toyota, knowing that I drive a Prius, could show people in my network an ad for a Prius and get much better results than a control group. Vendors like Media6Degrees provide such services.

 

(第223頁)美國空軍(USAFUnited States Air Force)如何處理網路上相關評論的工作流程:

2.     More information about the U.S. Air Force Blog Assessment chart is available at http://www.globalnerdy.com/2008/12/30/the-air-forces-rules-of-engagementfor-blogging/.

 

(第229頁)思科贊助運動和娛樂活動的策略:

3.     More information about Cisco’s “Connected Sports” off ering is available at http://cisco.com/web/strategy/sports/index.html.

 

(第233頁)優門(Humana)行銷部門製作了一系列的影片,回覆有關於醫療保險的常見問題,並且上傳YouTube

4.     Humana’s health question video is available at http://www.youtube.com/user/staysmartstayhealthy.

 

(第234頁)優門為退休人士成立的臉書粉絲團:

5.     Humana’s Facebook page is at http://www.facebook.com/pages/Humana-Military/144152068725.

 

(第235頁)星巴克(Starbucks)社群網站:

6.   Starbucks’ Facebook and Twitter pages are at http://www.facebook.com/Starbucks and http://twitter.com/starbucks, respectively.

 

(第236頁)星巴克Around the World

7.     Links to all of Starbucks’ international Facebook pages are available at http://www.facebook.com/Starbucks?v=app_142063194423.

 

(第237頁)福特汽車躋身北美運用社群媒體的龍頭企業之列:

8.     The Abrams Research Social Media Survey—February, 2009 results are available at http://www.abramsresearch.com/files/abrams_research_social_media_survey_0209.pdf.

 

(第238頁)美國紅十字會(American Red Cross)社群媒體經理溫蒂.哈曼(Wendy Harman)建立一份社群媒體使用手冊和指導原則,放在網站上公開讓每一個人都可以看得到:

9.     The American Red Cross Social Media Strategy Handbook is available at http://sites.google.com/site/wharman/social-media-strategy-handbook.

 

(第239頁)有了沙坑公約(相關規定),紅十字會各分部不需要為開放政策取得許可——他們可以自由進行,就跟其他當地分部的計畫一樣可以自行推動:10.   For a list of Red Cross chapter blogs, visit http://blog.redcross.org/chapterblogs/.

 

(第239頁)惠普也是一開始便採取協調模式的組織,2005年推出第一個部落格,確認經過認可的部落格全部都具備同樣的外觀和感覺,以及部落格主遵守新的社群媒體政策和行為準則

11.   The HP Blogging Code of Conduct is available at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/blogs/codeofconduct.html.

12.   A list of HP’s blogs is available at http://www.communities.hp.com/online/blogs/Bloggers.aspx.

13.   The Social Computer Lab research group at HP Labs provides one example: it led to the launch of Watercooler, an internal collaboration tool, and Friendlee, a mobile social application. More can be found at http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/scl/.

 

(第242頁)富國銀行的社群媒體:

14.   A list of Wells Fargo blogs can be found at http://blog.wellsfargo.com/. Other sites include http://www.youtube.com/user/wellsfargo, http://facebook.com/wellsfargo, http://www.myspace.com/stagecoachisland, and http://twitter.com/ask_wellsfargo. Stagecoach Island can be accessed at http://blog.wellsfargo.com/stagecoachisland.

 

第七章:開放式領導的思維和特質

 

(第258頁)百思買執行長布萊恩.鄧恩(Brian Dunn)表示,他十四歲在一家雜貨店裡頭打工時,對領導有了一些領悟:

1.     Adam Bryant, “You Want Insights? Go to the Front Lines,” New York Times, August 26, 2009, p. B2.

 

(第261頁)只有好奇心,並不足以讓人成為開放型領導者。你還需要謙虛的特質,誠如柯林斯在《從AA+》書中所說,這是卓越領導的一項關鍵特質:

2.     Jim Collins, Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap ……And Others Don’t (HarperBusiness, 2001).

 

(第262頁)時任柯達行銷長的傑佛瑞.海茲勒(Jeffrey Hayzlett)(編按:海茲勒於二年離開柯達公司。)是世界級的行銷人才,也是多產的部落格格主和推特的用戶:

3.     Jeff Hayzlett’s Twitter feed is available at http://twitter.com/Jeff reyHayzlett; his blog is at http://jeffreyhayzlett.1000words.kodak.com/.

 

第八章:如何培養開放式領導的能力?

 

(第286頁)身為領導者,首先,你們必須是個好人,具備正直、誠實、公平、尊重人們、幽默感、勇敢等無形的特質——簡而言之,就是華倫.班尼斯(Warren Bennis)在其經典名著《領導,不需要頭銜》(On Becoming a Leader)之中所描述的特質——贏得人們的信賴和追隨:

1.     Warren Bennis, On Becoming a Leader (New York: Basic Books, 1994), page 39 and later passages.

 

(第287頁)2005年《哈佛商業評論》(Harvard Business Review)的文章〈真誠管理:卓越領導的矛盾〉(Managing Authenticity: The Paradox Of Great Leadership)中提到:「真誠應該是別人描述你的特質。沒有任何一個領導者可以對著鏡子說:『我很真誠』。一個人不能自行定調為真誠。真誠的界定主要是根據別人對你的看法。」

2.     Rob Goff ee and Gareth Jones, “Managing Authenticity: The Paradox of Great Leadership.” Harvard Business Review (December 2005), available at http://hbr.org/2005/12/managing-authenticity/ar/1.

 

(第288頁)知道「吾日三省吾身」的適當時機和要反省些什麼,是一種高度受到重視的技能,攸關是否能為社群所接受:

3.     The phrase “checking it at the door” is used to describe what a person does to assimilate into a specific world that may not be accepting of their diff erences. See the report, “Do We Check It at the Door?” by Keith Woods at http://www.namme.org/career/publications/report_checkit.pdf.

 

(第290頁)百思買行銷長賈奇回憶起當行銷團隊來跟他談推出他自己的部落格時,他說:「我在部落格第一篇發文實在很可怕!寫完時我整個人鬆了口氣。一開始,只有兩句。」

4.     Barry Judge’s first blog post is available at http://barryjudge.com/hello-world.

 

(第290頁)第一次以社群技術參與人群的體驗——你不知道要寫些什麼?如何回應?而且,當你第一次按下「送出」的時候,可能會覺得很可怕!

5.     I wrote my first blog post in September 2004 and was indeed absolutely terrified to click “Publish.” To this day, I have a small moment of panic before posting, but now I know from experience that everything will be fine.

 

(第291頁)美國銀行執行長莫尼罕(Brian Moynihan)了解透明度的重要性,他說:「我們正在改變做生意的方式。我們致力於公平和透明。」

6.     The press release announcing Brian Moynihan’s appointment as CEO of Bank of America is available at http://multivu.prnewswire.com/mnr/bankofamerica/41726.

 

(第294頁)萬豪連鎖飯店(Marriott International)執行長比爾.馬利歐特(Bill Marriott)自20071月起開始經營部落格:

7.     Bill Marriott’s blog is at http://www.blogs.marriott.com.

 

(第295頁)萬豪連鎖飯店執行長馬利歐特:「像我這樣恐懼科技工具的人,在網路上發文就會多出許多步驟,不過我還是辦到了。因為我知道在這個時代,這是跟我們顧客和利害關係人溝通的好辦法。」

8.     Bill Marriott, “Why Do I Blog?” http://www.blogs.marriott.com/marriotton-the-move/2007/08/why-do-i-blog.html.

 

(第299頁)思科執行長錢伯斯接受幕僚建議嘗試影音部落格(而不是用寫的文字部落格),他不情願地答應試個二次。他說:「我第一次使用影音部落格是跟領導團隊溝通,還沒有用完,我就知道他們說得對。」

9.     Chambers typically video blogs internally, but you can see his first external video blog at http://blogs.cisco.com/news/comments/john_chambers_video_blog_if_there_is_a_killer_application_its_video.

 

(第299頁)夏蘭(Ram Charan)等人在合著的《領導路徑》(The Leadership Pipeline)一書中指出,從個別貢獻者的角色轉型為管理者,對於許多人而言或許很困難;因為,他們屬於專精於特定工作的專家,花了很多的時間培養卓越的技術,可以執行特定的任務;但是,並不了解同事的需求和期望。

10.   Ram Charan, Stephen Drotter, and James Noel, The Leadership Pipeline: How to Build the Leadership-Powered Company (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000)p. 35.

 

(第301頁)經常有人問我,要去哪裡找尋組織內部具有開放型領導潛力的人才?如何釋放他們的潛力?《海星模式》(The Starfish and the Spider)一書中對此有所描述:

11.   Ori Brafman and Rod A. Beckstrom, The Starfish and the Spider (Portfolio, 2006), 98.

 

(第301頁)百思買企業商務副總裁艾查(Michele Azar)曾經親自參與百思買的轉型,並立刻就發現授權員工使用網路平台和社群技術的威力和速度,並著手為公司開創開放的策略。

12.   To learn more about Best Buy’s open strategy, see the video “Open for Business: Best Buy’s Social Technology Strategy” at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=whzN-7uCiZw.

 

(第305頁)Sodexo體認到社群技術有助於改善聘僱流程,因此,不只是在社群世界蜻蜓點水而已,而是隨處可見。他們在臉書、LinkedInYouTube和推特都有網站,而且還有部落格。結果,求職者人數增加百分之二十五:

13.   A list of Sodexo’s social media channels is available at http://www.sodexousa.com/usen/careers/network/network.asp.

 

(第307頁)Zappos建立培養領導人才的管道,促進前線人員的開放式領導技巧。這些人員得到授權,無須詢問許可與否,自行做出和顧客服務相關的決定。讓他們於五到七年內,能夠成為公司內部的資深領導者。

14.   Max Chafkin, “The Zappos Way of Managing,” Inc. (May 2009), 66; available at http://www.inc.com/magazine/20090501/the-zappos-way-of-managing.html.

 

(第311頁)有份針對管理階層進行的意見調查顯示,72%的受訪回覆者表示,他們個人至少每個星期都會造訪社群媒體網站。不過,深入的數據顯示,他們這樣做主要是為了防禦和反應——大多數主管使用社群技術,是為了看看顧客說些什麼、監控競爭對手對於社群媒體的運用,以及了解目前員工正在分享些什麼:

15.   The Russell Herder study, “Social Media: Embracing the Opportunities, Averting the Risks,” is available at http://www.russellherder.com/SocialMediaResearch/TCHRA_Resources/RHP_089_WhitePaper.pdf.

 

(第312頁)就跟每一家公司都有開放型領導者一樣,每家公司都至少有一個老頑固——這號人物只會唱反調,而且自視為「我們這裡是這樣做事」的捍衛者。

16.   Hat tip to Erica Driver at Think Balm for the coining the phrase “Convincing the Curmudgeon,” the topic of a discussion forum she hosted. For more details, see http://www.thinkbalm.com/2008/12/17/thinkbalm-storytellingseries-1-role-play-redux-convince-the-curmudgeon.

 

(第313頁)思科執行長錢伯斯在接受《紐約時報》訪問時曾說:「合作改變了思科。如果人們沒有合作精神,如果他們並非天生傾向合作和團隊工作,如果他們對於運用科技在自己的生活和在思科實現這樣的合作覺得並不自在,那麼他們可能達不到這個境界。」

17.   Adam Bryant, “In a Near-Death Event, a Corporate Rite of Passage,” New York Times, August 2, 2009, B2.

 

第九章:失敗是必要的過程

 

(第323頁)Google深知,創新要能夠成功,就得有許多次、許多次的失敗:

1.   Several books have been written about Google’s reach and success. For example, check out What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis (New York: Collins Business, 2009) and Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta (New York: Penguin Press, 2009).

 

(第323-324頁)Google的創辦人之一佩吉(Larry Page):「我很高興你犯了這個錯誤。因為,我想要經營的公司是,寧可我們衝得太快、做得太多;而不是太過謹慎、做得太少。如果我們不曾犯過任何這類錯誤,那表示我們冒的險並不夠多。」

2.     Adam Lashinsky, “Chaos by Design: The Inside Story of Disorder, Disarray, and Uncertainty at Google. And Why It’s All Part of the Plan. (They Hope.),” Fortune, October 2, 2006, http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2006/10/02/8387489.

 

(第326頁)The Consumerist網站發文分析臉書的新條款:

3.     The Consumerist post is at http://consumerist.com/2009/02/facebooks-newterms-of-service-we-can-do-anything-we-want-with-your-content-forever.html#comments-content.

 

(第327頁)臉書執行長佐克柏(Mark Zuckerberg)在部落格上的發文;全部都是試圖解釋這份新服務條款的邏輯。佐克柏在其發文之中坦承:「這是個很難釐清方向的領域,我們會有一些疏失,不過身為分享資訊的頂尖服務,我們會認真看待這些議題和我們協助解決問題的責任。」

4.     Mark Zuckerberg’s post, “On Facebook, People Own and Control Their Information” is at http://blog.facebook.com/blog.php?post=54434097130.

 

(第327頁)佐克柏寫的第二份聲明:

5.     Zuckerberg’s second post “Update on Terms” is available at http://blog.facebook.com/blog.php?post=54746167130. The group “Facebook Bill Of Rights And Responsibilities” is available at http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=69048030774.

 

(第335頁)威名百貨(WalmartThe Hub只維持了十個星期,主要是因為這個網站以演員和模特兒推廣內容,和不斷地鼓勵網站訪客購買威名百貨的商品:

6.     You can read more about Walmart’s “The Hub” in this story, “Walmart’s MySpace Clone Dead On Arrival” at http://mashable.com/2006/10/03/walmarts-myspace-clone-dead-on-arrival.

 

(第335頁)有一對夫妻開著露營車環遊全國並在威名百貨公司各地的停車場上紮營,他們經營的部落格看似隨興,但後來被人踢爆他們接受威名百貨的贊助:

7.     See the BusinessWeek article, “Wal-Mart’s Jim and Laura: The Real Story,” October 9, 2006 at

http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/oct2006/db20061009_579137.htm.

 

(第336頁)威名百貨如何從社群媒體的失敗中汲取教訓:

8.     Details on Walmart’s “Roommate Style Match” is at http://mashable.com/2007/08/08/wal-marts-facebook-group-for-back-to-school-shopping. And more information on what went wrong with Walmart’s initial Facebook foray is at http://social-media-optimization.com/2007/10/a-failed-facebookmarketing-campaign.

 

(第337頁)威名百貨的社群網站:

9.     Walmart’s Facebook page can be found at www.facebook.com/walmart and a list of Walmart Twitter accounts is available at http://walmartstores.com/twitter.

 

(第338頁)2008年麥克尼爾消費健康照護公司(McNeil Consumer Healthcare)在其motrin.com網站嬰兒前揹巾廣告:

10.   You can see the Motrin commercial at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XO6SlTUBA38.

 

(第339頁)Motrin的廣告好像在說用前揹巾把嬰兒放在胸前的媽媽只是追求時尚:

11.   Details on how the Motrin Mom incident began are available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/60-second-science/post.cfm?id=motrinmoms-a-twitter-over-ad-take-2008-11-17.

 

(第339頁)YouTube截圖顯示推特上憤怒的發言,穿插著媽媽用前揹巾抱著嬰兒的照片:

12.   The YouTube video of Motrin Mom tweets is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LhR-y1N6R8Q.

 

(第340頁)時任麥克尼爾消費健康照護公司行銷副總裁的凱西.威德墨(Kathy Widmer)在JNJBTW部落格上這樣寫:「這則廣告原本的用意是,以同理心和肯定看待父母為孩子所做的一切,絕對不是想要冒犯各位母親……我代表麥克尼爾消費健康照護公司,如果各位因為這則廣告覺得受到冒犯,我很抱歉。我們正從我們的網站上撤除這則廣告……。我們已在這個過程之中學到教訓——尤其是,密切注意線上對話內容的重要性。」:

13.   McNeil’s response to the Motrin Moms controversy can be found at http://jnjbtw.com/2008/11/mcneil-meets-twitter-we-hear-you.

 

(第343頁)百思買由員工主導的創新成果當中,有一項名為Spy的輿情觀測程式,讓他們可以監控網路上與公司有關的言論:

14.   The Spy application was created by Best Buy employee Ben Hedrington and is available at http://spy.appspot.com.

 

(第344頁)百思買測試一個獎勵公司貴賓級顧客的新優惠卡計畫。不過,這家廠商卻誤把這項優惠計畫的電子郵件傳送給六百八十萬名顧客的電子郵件信箱,而不是參與測試的一千人:

15.   You can see a copy of the email with the erroneous off er at http://www.crunchgear.com/2008/09/03/best-buy-intros-premier-black-reward-zone-program.

 

(第344頁)賈奇(Barry Judge)在部落格上的回應:

16.   Barry Judge’s blog post “Trust and the Reward Zone Black Card Test” is available at http://barryjudge.com/trust-and-the-reward-zone-black-card-test.

 

(第346頁)

17.   You can read Jeremiah Owyang’s post “Expect Changes at Mzinga” at http://www.web-strategist.com/blog/2009/03/16/expect-changes-at-mzinga.

 

(第347頁)網路上發文道歉的藝術:

18.   Owyang’s post “A Public Apology to Mzinga” is available at http://www.webstrategist.com/blog/2009/03/17/a-public-apology-to-mzinga.

 

(第349頁)拉爾夫.希斯(Ralph Heath)在《為失敗喝采》(Celebrating Failure)一書中描述他如何注重、觀察失敗的故事:「比較讓我感到驕傲的是曾經為了成功而努力的過程,而不是成功本身。」

19.   Ralph Heath, Celebrating Failure: The Power of Taking Risks, Making Mistakes, and Thinking Big (The Career Press, 2009).

 

第十章:開放,將為公司帶來什麼轉變?

 

(第354頁)《企業文化》(Corporate Cultures)一書中,將組織文化定義為「我們這裡做事的方式」,反映出「組織之中的人和團體共有的具體價值觀和常規,他們彼此互動以及和外界利害關係人的往來,便是受此規範。」

1.     T. E. Deal and A. A. Kennedy, Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1982).

 

(第357頁)印度國家銀行再也不是年輕、富裕的顧客的首要選擇,在他們眼裡,這是一家老舊、保守的銀行。

2.     The State Bank of India’s situation is detailed in a McKinsey Quarterly interview with Om Bhatt, available at http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Remaking_a_government-owned_giant_An_interview_with_the_chairman_of_the_State_Bank_of_India_2249.

 

(第358頁)以《重返榮耀》(The Legend of Bagger Vance)這部電影做為比喻,帶動大家進而探討印度國家銀行可以如何「重返榮耀」,而情節是基於《薄伽梵歌》(Bhagavad-Gita)這個印度教宣揚無私奉獻的故事,更有相得益彰的效果:

3.     A summary of The Bhagavad Gita is available at http://www.hinduwebsite.com/summary.asp. The book Gita on the Green: The Mystical Tradition Behind Bagger Vance by Stephen J. Rosen (Continuum, 2008) explores the connection between The Legend of Bagger Vance and The Bhagavad Gita.

 

(第361頁)印度國家銀行開發一項名為「Parivartan」(變革)計畫,開門見山告知員工銀行目前的處境,收到立竿見影的效果:

4.     The State Bank of India case is based on Tamal Bandyopadhyay, “Om Prakash Bhatt: The Chairman in a Hurry,” http://www.livemint.com/2008/05/03000522/Om-Prakash-Bhatt--The-chairma.html; Vivek Kaul, “The elephant can dance: O P Bhatt,” http://www.dnaindia.com/money/report_theelephant-can-dance-o-p-bhatt_1201401; “It is Parivartan time at SBI,” http://www.financialexpress.com/news/it-is-parivartan-time-at-sbi/208256/#; Ryan Rodrigues, “Change Manager,” Business India, August 23, 2009, 58–76.

 

(第367頁)百思買企業商務副總裁艾查(Michele Azar)建立一套計畫,有系統地化解每一個障礙。第一步就是處理階級制度的摩擦,尤其是高階主管和管理階層不是那麼有興趣公開參與或可能有所疑慮。艾查擬定一系列公開的原則,並在公司廣為宣導,讓更多人認同開放真正的意涵,化解這類的疑慮「我很害怕;我要如何行動、如何參與?」:

5.     The presentation “An Open, Social Approach” is available at http://www.slideshare.net/garykoelling/thebigslideshow1-presentation.

 

(第368頁)艾查的第二步就是消除這些摩擦,把資料和技術的運用部署在員工可以就近取用的地方,藉此克服人們難以運用資料的障礙。開發Remix是他們的重大進展之一,這項介面讓任何人都可以運用公司整個線上產品目錄和建立客製化的應用:

6.     Best Buy Remix is available at http://remix.bestbuy.com/.

 

(第370頁)「Twelpforce顯然是個實驗。一個公開度極高的實驗。Twelpforce可以做為觸媒,讓我們公司全體人員對於顧客服務產生極為不同的想法。顧客服務不再只是一個部門,而是我們公司所有員工都可以從事的事情。」

7.     From Barry Judge’s blog post, “Twelpforce—Blurring the Lines Between Customer Service and Marketing,” available at http://barryjudge.com/twelpforce-blurring-the-lines-between-customer-service-and-marketing.

 

(第371頁)雷富禮在他和夏藍共同著作的《創新者的致勝法則》(The Game Changer)寫道:「我們知道創新是獨占鰲頭和長期致勝的關鍵……。秉持這樣的認知,我們思索創新策略有哪些關鍵的促成要素或是推動力量,這些驅動的力量會使得營運以創新為主導,並且建立創新的文化;並進而產生扭轉乾坤的創新成果,打動更多的消費者並改善更多人的生活。」

8.     A. G. Lafley and Ram Charan, The Game-Changer: How You Can Drive Revenue and Profit Growth with Innovation (Crown Business, 2008).

 

(第374頁)雷富禮還有一大明智之舉,從寶僑內部找出可以授權給其他公司、甚至給競爭對手的創新成果。

9.     From a presentation by Jeff Weedman, April 3, 2009, available at http://cusli.org/conferences/annual/annual_2009/presentations/Weedman%20Canada.pdf.

 

 

(第375頁)知名部落客傑夫.賈維斯(Jeff Jarvis)的「戴爾地獄」發文:

10.   Jarvis’s first post, “Dell Lies. Dell Sucks,” is available at http://www.buzzmachine.com/archives/2005_06_21.html#009911.

 

(第377頁)戴爾一款筆記型電腦在日本大阪舉行的一場會議中突然起火:

11.   Engadget has a post titled “Dude, Your Dell Is on Fire” that describes the incident; it’s available at http://www.engadget.com/2006/06/22/dude-yourdell-is-on-fire.

 

(第377頁)「起火的筆電」(Flaming Notebook):

12.   Menchaca’s “Flaming Notebook” post is available at http://en.community.dell.com/blogs/direct2dell/archive/2006/07/13/431.aspx.

 

(第378頁)知名部落客傑夫.賈維斯:「(前略)對於這麼一家據傳最不擅長於部落格、社群媒體和顧客關係的公司而言,這可是件大事。現在,廣泛而言,我們可以說這是一家最擅長這方面的公司。公司的高階主管不會承認這一點,不過我懷疑,他們之所以在部落格的領域如此大膽,可能就是因為當初摔得這麼重。」

 

(第378頁)13.   Jeff Jarvis’s visit to Dell, entitled “Dell Hell: The End?” is available at http://www.buzzmachine.com/2007/10/18/dell-hell-the-end.

 

(第382頁)美國國務院國際資訊局(International Information Program Bureau)的「創新參與辦公室」(Office of Innovative Engagement)副局長威廉斯(Lovisa Williams)的團隊,為臉書網頁開發了一個社群媒體領域指導原則,讓大使館人員可以輕易地遵守原則並打造自己的網頁。

14.  The main State Department Facebook page is at

http://facebook.com/usdos with links to over forty embassies and topics.

 

(第382頁)美國駐雅加達大使館的網頁是最活躍的一個,這是由當地語言撰寫,擁有將近二萬名粉絲:

15.   The US Jakarta embassy Facebook page can be found at http://www.facebook.com/jakarta.usembassy.

 

(第383頁)美國總統歐巴馬訪問迦納(Ghana)時,美國國務院推出一項計畫,邀請非洲人民用手機簡訊對歐巴馬總統提問,歐巴馬會在廣播節目之中回答:

16.   Details on the “Global Conversations” conducted by Obama are available at http://www.america.gov/st/africa-english/2009/July/20090708145523SztiwomoD0.258053.html.

 

(第383頁)美國總統歐巴馬在廣播節目之中的回覆記錄為影片和語音檔,並在迦納和鄰國的廣播電台播放:

17.   A transcript of Obama’s responses is available at http://www.america.gov/st/texttrans-english/2009/July/20090713000019ptellivremos0.3191645.html.

 

(第384頁)

18.   One of my favorites in the genre of change management is Leading Change by John P. Kotter (Harvard Business Press, 1996).

  

 

 QB1094    

 

文章標籤
創作者介紹

經濟新潮社EcoTrend官方部落格

EcoTrend 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(1) 人氣()

留言列表 (1)

發表留言
  • Sqiar BI
  • Data Visualization Software
    SQIAR (www.sqiar.com/solutions/technology/tableau) is a leading Business Intelligence company and provides Tableau Software consultancy across United Kingdom and USA